Archiv der Kategorie: Original documents

Publications 2021

Pisl, V., Volavka, J., Chvojkova, E., Cechova, K., Kavalirova, G., & Vevera, J.. (2021). Dissociation, cognitive reflection and health literacy have a modest effect on belief in conspiracy theories about covid-19. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

Plain numerical DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18105065
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Körner, J.. (2020). Über Verschwörungstheorien und ihre Anhänger. [On conspiracy theories and their supporters.]. Forum Der Psychoanalyse: Zeitschrift Für Klinische Theorie & Praxis
Guan, T., Liu, T., & Yuan, R.. (2021). Facing disinformation: Five methods to counter conspiracy theories amid the Covid-19 pandemic. Comunicar

Plain numerical DOI: 10.3916/C69-2021-06
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Arshad, M. S., Hussain, I., Mahmood, T., Hayat, K., Majeed, A., Imran, I., … Rasool, M. F.. (2021). A national survey to assess the covid-19 vaccine-related conspiracy beliefs, acceptability, preference, and willingness to pay among the general population of Pakistan. Vaccines

Plain numerical DOI: 10.3390/vaccines9070720
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Levy, S., Saxon, M., & Wang, W. Y.. (2021). Investigating Memorization of Conspiracy Theories in Text Generation

Plain numerical DOI: 10.18653/v1/2021.findings-acl.416
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Pisl, V., Volavka, J., Chvojkova, E., Cechova, K., Kavalirova, G., & Vevera, J.. (2021). Willingness to Vaccinate Against COVID-19: The Role of Health Locus of Control and Conspiracy Theories. Frontiers in Psychology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.717960
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Gorman, J. M., Scales, D. A., & Gorman, S. E.. (2021). Expert opinion in mental disorder: Why is acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccines so problematic?. Personalized Medicine in Psychiatry

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.pmip.2021.100072
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Hashmi, U. M., Ab Rashid, R., & Hashmi, H. A.. (2021). Informed intertextuality in the conspiracy theories on Covid-19 within Social Media. In 2021 7th International Conference on Web Research, ICWR 2021

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1109/ICWR51868.2021.9443115
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Theoretical Model of Behavioral Consequences of Faith in Conspiracy Theory. (2021). Visnyk of V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University. A Series of Psychology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.26565/2225-7756-2021-70-10
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Borba, R.. (2021). ‘Fora, Bolsonaro genocida!’: COVID-19 conspiracy theories, neo-nationalism and neoliberal necropolitics in Brazil. A reply to Kalil et al (2021). Global Discourse

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1332/204378921X16203663668845
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Pivetti, M., Di Battista, S., Paleari, F. G., & Hakoköngäs, E.. (2021). Conspiracy beliefs and attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccinations: A conceptual replication study in Finland. Journal of Pacific Rim Psychology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1177/18344909211039893
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Kühne, O., Koegst, L., Zimmer, M. L., & Schäffauer, G.. (2021). “… Inconceivable, unrealistic and inhumane”. Internet communication on the flood disaster in west germany of july 2021 between conspiracy theories and moralization— A neopragmatic explorative study. Sustainability (Switzerland)

Plain numerical DOI: 10.3390/su132011427
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Leonard, M. J., & Philippe, F. L.. (2021). Corrigendum: Conspiracy Theories: A Public Health Concern and How to Address It (Front. Psychol, (2021), 12, (682931), 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.682931). Frontiers in Psychology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.748874
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Albarracin, D.. (2021). Conspiracy beliefs: Knowledge, ego defense, and social integration in the processing of fake news.. The Psychology of Fake News: Accepting, Sharing, and Correcting Misinformation.
Froehlich, T.. (2021). Some Thoughts Evoked by Peter Lor, Bradley Wiles, and Johannes Britz, “Re-thinking Information Ethics: Truth, conspiracy theories, and librarians in the COViD-19 era,” in Libri, March 2021. Libri

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1515/libri-2021-0061
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Pivetti, M., Di Battista, S., Paleari, F. G., & Hakoköngäs, E.. (2021). Conspiracy beliefs and attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccinations. Journal of Pacific Rim Psychology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1177/18344909211039893
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Enders, A. M., & Uscinski, J. E.. (2021). The Role of Anti-Establishment Orientations during the Trump Presidency. Forum (Germany)

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1515/for-2021-0003
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Author, Q., Moskalenko, S., & Mccauley, C.. (2021). QAnon. Source: Perspectives on Terrorism
Gabriel, A. S., MacGowan, R. L., Ganster, M. L., & Slaughter, J. E.. (2021). The influence of COVID-induced job search anxiety and conspiracy beliefs on job search effort: A within-person investigation.. Journal of Applied Psychology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1037/apl0000926
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Kavanagh, K. T., Pontus, C., Pare, J., & Cormier, L. E.. (2021). COVID-19 lessons learned: a global perspective. Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1186/s13756-021-00992-x
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Melton, C. A., Olusanya, O. A., Ammar, N., & Shaban-Nejad, A.. (2021). Public sentiment analysis and topic modeling regarding COVID-19 vaccines on the Reddit social media platform: A call to action for strengthening vaccine confidence. Journal of Infection and Public Health

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.jiph.2021.08.010
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Woodman, A. J.. (2021). Sallust and catiline: Conspiracy theories. Historia – Zeitschrift Fur Alte Geschichte

Plain numerical DOI: 10.25162/HISTORIA-2021-0003
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Blackburn, S.. (2021). Conspiracy Theories by Quassim Cassam: Polity Press, 2021 ed., 140 pp., ISBN: 978-1509535835. Society

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1007/s12115-021-00570-2
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Bernhard, R.. (2021). Fake News, Conspiracy Theories and Textbooks. Public History Weekly

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1515/phw-2021-17608
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Moskalenko, S., & McCauley, C.. (2021). QAiion: Radical Opinion versus Radical Action. Perspectives on Terrorism
Kydd, A. H.. (2021). Decline, radicalization and the attack on the US Capitol. Violence: An International Journal

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1177/26330024211010043
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Kuo, W. H.. (2021). Channeling Facts, Crouching Rumours: Taiwan’s Post-Truth Encounter with the Covid Pandemic. Science, Technology and Society

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1177/09717218211032894
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Lo, S. Y., Li, S. C. S., & Wu, T. Y.. (2021). Exploring psychological factors for COVID-19 vaccination intention in taiwan. Vaccines

Plain numerical DOI: 10.3390/vaccines9070764
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Schake, K., & Robinson, M.. (2021). Assessing Civil-Military Relations and the January 6th Capitol Insurrection. Orbis

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.orbis.2021.06.013
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Rafique, N.. (2021). Impact of Covid-19 Pandemic and Conspiracy Belief on Psychological Distress in University Students. Pakistan Social Sciences Review

Plain numerical DOI: 10.35484/pssr.2021(5-i)13
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Nossier, S. A.. (2021). Vaccine hesitancy: the greatest threat to COVID-19 vaccination programs. Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1186/s42506-021-00081-2
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Burel, G., Farrell, T., & Alani, H.. (2021). Demographics and topics impact on the co-spread of COVID-19 misinformation and fact-checks on Twitter. Information Processing and Management

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.ipm.2021.102732
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(2021). Ideas: Conspiracy theories: Linked to literature. The UNESCO Courier

Plain numerical DOI: 10.18356/22202293-2021-2-12
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Crossley, J.. (2021). The Apocalypse and Political Discourse in an Age of COVID. Journal for the Study of the New Testament

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1177/0142064X211025464
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Johnson, B. B.. (2021). Factors in Intention to Get the COVID-19 Vaccine Change Over Time: Evidence from a Two-Wave U.S. Study. SSRN Electronic Journal

Plain numerical DOI: 10.2139/ssrn.3877511
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Hristov, T.. (2021). Review of Conspiracy theories as a form of phatic communication. Semiotica

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1515/sem-2021-0007
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Hernández-García, I., Gascón-Giménez, I., Gascón-Giménez, A., & Giménez-Júlvez, T.. (2021). Information in Spanish on YouTube about Covid-19 vaccines. Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1080/21645515.2021.1957416
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Bond, B. E., & Neville-Shepard, R.. (2021). The Rise of Presidential Eschatology: Conspiracy Theories, Religion, and the January 6th Insurrection. American Behavioral Scientist

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1177/00027642211046557
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DINULESCU, I.. (2021). RELIGION AND POLITICS IN THE CONTEXT OF THE 6 JANUARY 2021 ASSAULT ON THE US CONGRESS. Strategic Impact

Plain numerical DOI: 10.53477/1841-5784-21-05
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Kachurka, R., Krawczyk, M., & Rachubik, J.. (2021). Persuasive messages will not increase COVID-19 vaccine acceptance: evidence from a nationwide online experiment. Vaccines

Plain numerical DOI: 10.3390/vaccines9101113
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Barry, D., McIntire, M., & Rosenberg, M.. (2021). ‘Our President Wants Us Here’: The Mob That Stormed the Capitol. The New York Times
Guillon, M., & Kergall, P.. (2021). Factors associated with COVID-19 vaccination intentions and attitudes in France. Public Health

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.puhe.2021.07.035
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Kufel-Grabowska, J., Bartoszkiewicz, M., Ramlau, R., & Litwiniuk, M.. (2021). Cancer patients and internal medicine patients attitude towards COVID-19 vaccination in Poland. Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine : Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University

Plain numerical DOI: 10.17219/acem/138962
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Fru, C. N., Andrew, T., Greenspan, D., Cho, F. N., Martin, M., Livingstone, J., … Derick, N.. (2021). Vaccination Hesitancy: The Case of Cervical Cancer Vaccination in Fako Division, Cameroon. International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health

Plain numerical DOI: 10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i830476
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Bensley, D. A., & Lilienfeld, S. O.. (2020). Assessing belief in unsubstantiated claims.. Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Psychology

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1037/stl0000218
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Wu, W., Lyu, H., & Luo, J.. (2021). Characterizing Discourse about COVID-19 Vaccines: A Reddit Version of the Pandemic Story. Health Data Science

Plain numerical DOI: 10.34133/2021/9837856
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Xantus, G. Z., Burke, D., & Kanizsai, P.. (2021). How to best handle vaccine decliners: Scientific facts and psychological approach. Postgraduate Medical Journal

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1136/postgradmedj-2021-139835
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Zemlyanskiy, A. V.. (2021). “INFODEMIC” CASE STUDY: CONSPIRACY THEORIES AROUND COVID-19 – SPREADING AND DEBUNKING IN THE MEDIA. Science and School

Plain numerical DOI: 10.31862/1819-463x-2021-3-51-61
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Botwe, B. O., Antwi, W. K., Adusei, J. A., Mayeden, R. N., Akudjedu, T. N., & Sule, S. D.. (2021). COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy concerns: Findings from a Ghana clinical radiography workforce survey. Radiography

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.radi.2021.09.015
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Avendaño, D., Fasce, A., Costello, T., & Adrián-Ventura, J.. (2021). Spanish Adaptation of the Left-Wing Authoritarianism Index. Journal of Personality Assessment

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1080/00223891.2021.1981345
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Odintsova, O. V., & Moreeva, E. V.. (2021). PROBLEMS OF COMMUNICATION MANAGEMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF THE SPREAD OF THE COVID-19 INFODEMIA. Problemy Sotsial’noi Gigieny, Zdravookhraneniia i Istorii Meditsiny

Plain numerical DOI: 10.32687/0869-866X-2021-29-s1-689-693
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Bunina, A.. (2021). The evolution of right-wing radicalism in the United States during the Trump era. Pathways to Peace and Security

Plain numerical DOI: 10.20542/2307-1494-2021-1-60-88
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(2021). FACT-CHECKING: AN IMPORTANT TOOL TO COMBAT FAKE NEWS ON HEALTH IN COVID-19 PANDEMIC. International Journal of Communications and Networks

Plain numerical DOI: 10.28933/ijcn-2021-05-2005
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Vowles, K., & Hultman, M.. (2021). Scare-quoting climate: The rapid rise of climate denial in the Swedish far-right media ecosystem. Nordic Journal of Media Studies

Plain numerical DOI: 10.2478/njms-2021-0005
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Binub, K., Govindaraj, ., & Haveri, S. P.. (2021). Vaccine Resistance-Vantage Point from Health Professionals of South India. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International

Plain numerical DOI: 10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1131244
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Rovinskaya, T. L.. (2021). The role of new digital technologies in a time of crisis (Pandemic 2019–2021). World Economy and International Relations

Plain numerical DOI: 10.20542/0131-2227-2021-65-6-95-106
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Xia, Y.. (2021). Disinformation after Trump. Media, Culture and Society

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1177/01634437211040684
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Kuzma, R., Cruickshank, I. J., & Carley, K. M.. (2021). Analysis of External Content in the Vaccination Discussion on Twitter. Proceedings of International Conference on Information Technology for Social Good (GoodIT 2021)
Miklósvölgyi, Z., & Nemes, M. Z.. (2021). “Who should we hate today?”: Notes from an illiberal laboratory. Maska

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1386/maska_00064_1
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Al-Wutayd, O., Khalil, R., & Rajar, A. B.. (2021). Sociodemographic and behavioral predictors of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in Pakistan. Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare

Plain numerical DOI: 10.2147/JMDH.S325529
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Stemmler, M., Endres, J., King, S., Ritter, B., & Becker, K.. (2021). Psychological Differences between Radicalized and non-Radicalized Muslim Prisoners: A Qualitative Analysis of their Frame Alignment. Monatsschrift Fur Kriminologie Und Strafrechtsreform

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1515/mks-2021-0131
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Überveillance and the Rise of Last-Mile Implantables: Past, Present, and Future. (2020). In Embodied Computing

Plain numerical DOI: 10.7551/mitpress/11564.003.0007
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Vītoliņš, R. R.. (2021). “To flee quickly and return slowly”: Historical experience in cohabitation with a disease. Perspectives of scholarly research into a change of perception. Journal of the Institute of Latvian History

Plain numerical DOI: 10.22364/lviz.113.07
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Kacimi, S. E. O., Klouche-Djedid, S. N., Riffi, O., Belaouni, H. A., Yasmin, F., Taouza, F. A., … Haireche, M. A.. (2021). Determinants of SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Engagement in Algeria: A Population-based Study with Systematic Review of Studies from Arab Countries of the MENA Region. MedRxiv
Williams, S. N., & Dienes, K.. (2021). Public attitudes to COVID-19 vaccines: A qualitative study. MedRxiv
NCT04706403. (2021). Views on COVID-19 and Vaccination. Https://Clinicaltrials.Gov/Show/NCT04706403
Voznyak, H., Patytska, K., & Kloba, T.. (2021). THE INFLUENCE OF THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC ON CHANGING THE BEHAVIOR OF ECONOMIC ENTITIES. Green, Blue & Digital Economy Journal

Plain numerical DOI: 10.30525/2661-5169/2021-2-2
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Charlier, P.. (2021). COVID-19 actuality: From suicide epidemics in Asia to the responsibility of public authorities in the management of the crisis. Ethics, Medicine and Public Health

Plain numerical DOI: 10.1016/j.jemep.2021.100637
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Lazareva, I., & Miheev, E.. (2021). IMPROVING THE PSYCHOLOGICAL RESISTANCE OF YOUNG PEOPLE TO MANIPULATIVE INFLUENCE ON THE INTERNET. Applied Psychology and Pedagogy

Plain numerical DOI: 10.12737/2500-0543-2021-6-3-38-51
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Nct. (2021). Views on COVID-19 and Vaccination. Https://Clinicaltrials.Gov/Show/NCT04706403
Drobot, O. V.. (2021). PSYCHOLOGICAL MANIFESTATIONS OF MASS PANDEMIC CONSCIOUSNESS. Scientific Notes of Ostroh Academy National University: Psychology Series

Plain numerical DOI: 10.25264/2415-7384-2021-13-10-14
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Sokolov, D.. (2021). Knowledge and Education in Digital Era. Ideas and Ideals

Plain numerical DOI: 10.17212/2075-0862-2021-13.2.1-33-50
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Haladjian, L.. (2021). Intergenerational trauma among second, third, and fourth generation Armenian genocide survivors.. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering
Haladjian, L.. (2021). Intergenerational trauma among second, third, and fourth generation Armenian genocide survivors.. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering
Kossowska, M., & Bukowski, M.. (2015). Motivated roots of conspiracies: The role of certainty and control motives in conspiracy thinking.. The Psychology of Conspiracy.
Soares, F., & Recuero, R.. (2021). How the Mainstream Media Help to Spread Disinformation about Covid-19. M/C Journal

Plain numerical DOI: 10.5204/mcj.2735
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Plain BibTeX

@article{Pisl2021,
abstract = {Understanding the predictors of belief in COVID-related conspiracy theories and willingness to get vaccinated against COVID-19 may aid the resolution of current and future pandemics. We investigate how psychological and cognitive characteristics influence general conspiracy mentality and COVID-related conspiracy theories. A cross-sectional study was conducted based on data from an online survey of a sample of Czech university students (n = 866) collected in January 2021, using multivariate linear regression and mediation analysis. Sixteen percent of respondents believed that COVID-19 is a hoax, and 17% believed that COVID-19 was intentionally created by humans. Seven percent of the variance of the hoax theory and 10% of the variance of the creation theory was explained by (in descending order of relevance) low cognitive reflection, low digital health literacy, high experience with dissociation and, to some extent, high bullshit receptivity. Belief in COVIDrelated conspiracy theories depended less on psychological and cognitive variables compared to conspiracy mentality (16% of the variance explained). The effect of digital health literacy on belief in COVID-related theories was moderated by cognitive reflection. Belief in conspiracy theories related to COVID-19 was influenced by experience with dissociation, cognitive reflection, digital health literacy and bullshit receptivity.},
author = {Pisl, Vojtech and Volavka, Jan and Chvojkova, Edita and Cechova, Katerina and Kavalirova, Gabriela and Vevera, Jan},
doi = {10.3390/ijerph18105065},
issn = {16604601},
journal = {International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health},
keywords = {Bullshit receptivity,COVID-19,Cognitive reflection,Conspiracy theories,Dissociation,EHEALS,Health literacy},
pmid = {34065023},
title = {{Dissociation, cognitive reflection and health literacy have a modest effect on belief in conspiracy theories about covid-19}},
year = {2021}
}
@misc{Korner2020,
abstract = {In the current intensely conducted debate about the corona pandemic and its consequences, numerous citizens have spoken out mistrusting the statements of politicians and scientists and claiming that the virus has been spread by malicious persons or hostile powers intentionally and out of selfish interests. Such conspiracy theories spread whenever people have to deal with surprising and frightening events. This article provides an overview of the history of conspiracy theories and explores the question of which persons are prone to conspiracy theories and for what reasons. From a psychodynamic perspective these are people who, partly from unconscious motives, tend to accuse others of having hostile intentions against which they have to defend themselves by force. From some parallels to conflictual psychotherapeutic relationship situations, initial suggestions can be derived for a constructive approach to conspiracy theory supporters in educational and political contexts. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)},
author = {K{\"{o}}rner, J{\"{u}}rgen},
booktitle = {Forum der Psychoanalyse: Zeitschrift f{\"{u}}r klinische Theorie & Praxis},
isbn = {1437-0751(Electronic),0178-7667(Print)},
keywords = {*Conspiracy Theories,*Coronavirus,*Politicians,*Psychodynamics,*Theories,Pandemics},
title = {{{\"{U}}ber Verschw{\"{o}}rungstheorien und ihre Anh{\"{a}}nger. [On conspiracy theories and their supporters.]}},
year = {2020}
}
@article{Goodman2020,
abstract = {{\ldots} 1/24/2021 Coronavirus: Bill Gates 'microchip' conspiracy theory and other vaccine claims fact-checked {\ldots} have claimed that drinking cow urine could boost immunity against the virus - a claim {\ldots} Kant, a biologist and head of research at the Indian Council for Medical Research, about {\ldots}},
author = {Goodman, Jack and Carmichael, Flora},
journal = {BBC News, Reality Check},
title = {{Coronavirus: Bill Gates 'Microchip' conspiracy theory and other vaccine claims fact-checked}},
year = {2020}
}
@article{Guan2021,
abstract = {Among the burgeoning discussions on the argumentative styles of conspiracy theories and the related cognitive processes of their audiences, research thus far is limited in regard to developing methods and strategies that could effectively debunk conspiracy theories and reduce the harmful influences of conspiracist media exposure. The present study critically evaluates the effectiveness of five approaches to reducing conspiratorial belief, through experiments (N=607) conducted on Amazon Mechanical Turk. Our results demonstrate that the content-based methods of counter conspiracy theory can partly mitigate conspiratorial belief. Specifically, the science- and fact-focused corrections were able to effectively mitigate conspiracy beliefs, whereas media literacy and inoculation strategies did not produce significant change. More crucially, our findings illustrate that both audience-focused methods, which involve decoding the myth of conspiracy theory and re-imagining intergroup relationships, were effective in reducing the cognitive acceptance of conspiracy theory. Building on these insights, this study contributes to a systematic examination of different epistemic means to influence (or not) conspiracy beliefs-an urgent task in the face of the infodemic threat apparent both during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.},
author = {Guan, Tianru and Liu, Tianyang and Yuan, Randong},
doi = {10.3916/C69-2021-06},
issn = {19883293},
journal = {Comunicar},
keywords = {COVID-19,China-United States relation,Conspiracy theories,Teor{\'{i}}a conspirativa,audience,audiencias,correction methods,influencia medi{\'{a}}tica,media influence,m{\'{e}}todo de rectificaci{\'{o}}n,relaciones China-Estados Unidos},
title = {{Facing disinformation: Five methods to counter conspiracy theories amid the Covid-19 pandemic}},
year = {2021}
}
@article{Arshad2021,
abstract = {The current study aims to assess the beliefs of the general public in Pakistan towards conspiracy theories, acceptance, willingness to pay, and preference for the COVID-19 vaccine. A cross-sectional study was conducted through an online self-administered questionnaire during January 2021. The Chi-square test or Fisher exact test was utilized for statistical data analysis. A total of 2158 respondents completed the questionnaire, among them 1192 (55.2%) were male with 23.87 (SD: ±6.23) years as mean age. The conspiracy beliefs circulating regarding the COVID-19 vaccine were believed by 9.3% to 28.4% of the study participants. Among them, 1040 (48.2%) agreed to vaccinate on its availability while 934 (43.3%) reported the Chinese vaccine as their preference. The conspiracy beliefs of the participants were significantly associated with acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine. The existence of conspiracy beliefs and low vaccine acceptance among the general population is a serious threat to successful COVID-19 vaccination.},
author = {Arshad, Muhammad Subhan and Hussain, Iltaf and Mahmood, Tahir and Hayat, Khezar and Majeed, Abdul and Imran, Imran and Saeed, Hamid and Iqbal, Muhammad Omer and Uzair, Muhammad and Rehman, Anees Ur and Ashraf, Waseem and Usman, Areeba and Syed, Shahzada Khurram and Akbar, Muqarrab and Chaudhry, Muhammad Omer and Ramzan, Basit and Islam, Muhammad and Saleem, Muhammad Usman and Shakeel, Waleed and Iqbal, Iram and Hashmi, Furqan and Rasool, Muhammad Fawad},
doi = {10.3390/vaccines9070720},
issn = {2076393X},
journal = {Vaccines},
keywords = {COVID-19,COVID-19 vaccine,Conspiracy theories,General public,Vaccine acceptance,Vaccine hesitancy},
title = {{A national survey to assess the covid-19 vaccine-related conspiracy beliefs, acceptability, preference, and willingness to pay among the general population of Pakistan}},
year = {2021}
}
@inproceedings{Levy2021,
abstract = {The adoption of natural language generation (NLG) models can leave individuals vulnerable to the generation of harmful information memorized by the models, such as conspiracy theories. While previous studies examine conspiracy theories in the context of social media, they have not evaluated their presence in the new space of generative language models. In this work, we investigate the capability of language models to generate conspiracy theory text. Specifically, we aim to answer: can we test pretrained generative language models for the memorization and elicitation of conspiracy theories without access to the model's training data? We highlight the difficulties of this task and discuss it in the context of memorization, generalization, and hallucination. Utilizing a new dataset consisting of conspiracy theory topics and machine-generated conspiracy theories helps us discover that many conspiracy theories are deeply rooted in the pretrained language models. Our experiments demonstrate a relationship between model parameters such as size and temperature and their propensity to generate conspiracy theory text. These results indicate the need for a more thorough review of NLG applications before release and an in-depth discussion of the drawbacks of memorization in generative language models.},
archivePrefix = {arXiv},
arxivId = {2101.00379},
author = {Levy, Sharon and Saxon, Michael and Wang, William Yang},
doi = {10.18653/v1/2021.findings-acl.416},
eprint = {2101.00379},
title = {{Investigating Memorization of Conspiracy Theories in Text Generation}},
year = {2021}
}
@article{Pisl2021a,
abstract = {Understanding the predictors of the willingness to get vaccinated against COVID-19 may aid in the resolution of current and future pandemics. We investigate how the readiness to believe conspiracy theories and the three dimensions of health locus of control (HLOC) affect the attitude toward vaccination. A cross-sectional study was conducted based on the data from an online survey of a sample of Czech university students (n = 866) collected in January 2021, using the multivariate linear regression models and moderation analysis. The results found that 60% of Czech students wanted to get vaccinated against COVID-19. In addition, 40% of the variance of willingness to get vaccinated was explained by the belief in the COVID-19-related conspiracy theories and the powerful others dimension of HLOC. One-sixth of the variance of the willingness to get vaccinated was explained by HLOC, cognitive reflection, and digital health literacy [eHealth Literacy Scale (EHEALS)]. HLOC and conspiracy mentality (CM) and its predictors are valid predictors of a hesitancy to get vaccinated against COVID-19. The campaigns promoting vaccination should target the groups specifically vulnerable to the conspiracy theories and lacking HLOC related to powerful others.},
author = {Pisl, Vojtech and Volavka, Jan and Chvojkova, Edita and Cechova, Katerina and Kavalirova, Gabriela and Vevera, Jan},
doi = {10.3389/fpsyg.2021.717960},
issn = {16641078},
journal = {Frontiers in Psychology},
title = {{Willingness to Vaccinate Against COVID-19: The Role of Health Locus of Control and Conspiracy Theories}},
year = {2021}
}
@article{Gorman2021,
abstract = {A substantial number of people say they will probably or definitely not have a vaccine for COVID-19. We place the reasons for vaccine hesitancy and refusal into three categories: fears that the vaccines are not safe, misinformed ideas, and agreement with conspiracy theories. Evidence-based approaches are available that account for the psychological factors underlying vaccine hesitancy and refusal that should form the basis for counteracting facts and persuasion.Copyright {\textcopyright} 2021},
author = {Gorman, Jack M. and Scales, David A. and Gorman, Sara E.},
doi = {10.1016/j.pmip.2021.100072},
issn = {24681717},
journal = {Personalized Medicine in Psychiatry},
title = {{Expert opinion in mental disorder: Why is acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccines so problematic?}},
year = {2021}
}
@inproceedings{Hashmi2021,
abstract = {This paper examines the strategic construction and justifications of conspiracy theories on COVID-19 within social media. This study employed an ethnographic approach and generated data through the observation of purposively selected social media Pages, Groups, and Blogs. The six-month observation from August 2020 to January 2021 yielded 230 postings presenting propaganda against the COVID-19. The data were analyzed using intertextual analysis, drawing upon features of intertextuality. The analysis revealed that the conspiracy theories against COVID-19 are constructed upon five intertextual bases whereby the specific marked intertextuality emerged as the most used technique. The analysis also revealed that manipulation of others texts, obfuscation of intertextual sources, and exploitation of Muslim sentiments are leveraged in the construction of conspiracy theories and digital propaganda against COVID-19.},
author = {Hashmi, Umair Munir and {Ab Rashid}, Radzuwan and Hashmi, Hassam Ahmad},
booktitle = {2021 7th International Conference on Web Research, ICWR 2021},
doi = {10.1109/ICWR51868.2021.9443115},
isbn = {9781665404266},
keywords = {COVID-19,Conspiracy Theories,Digital Propaganda,Intertextuality,Social Media},
title = {{Informed intertextuality in the conspiracy theories on Covid-19 within Social Media}},
year = {2021}
}
@article{,
abstract = {The article analyzes researches of recent years on the current issues of studying psychological features of faith in conspiracy theory. It is noted that the relevance of this issue is determined by the lack of thorough theoretical and empirical research on the above issue. The authors for the first time reviewed and generalized analysis of socio-psychological predictors of belief in conspiracy theory and its behavioral consequences. It is determined that belief in conspiracy theory is associated with socio-political conditions (stressful situation of uncertainty in society, distrust of power, low social status, political cynicism, low level of education, etc.), individual psychological (schizotypal traits, neuroticism, mistrust, anxiety, insecurity, narcissism) and cognitive factors (conspiratorial type of thinking, etc ..) Analysis of literature revealed a number of positive and negative consequences of faith in the theory of conspiracies, which are sometimes contradictory. The result of this analysis is the proposed theoretical model of behavioral consequences of faith in conspiracy theory. In addition, the authors emphasize the generalization of the study results of conspiracy theories impact related to the spread of the COVID-19 virus on the implementation of preventive measures by the population. It is noted that people with a high conspiracy mentality are more likely to engage in abusive prevention behaviors, but are less likely to adhere to government-initiated preventive behaviors, although the perceived risk of death and motivation to defend themselves can minimize this trend.},
doi = {10.26565/2225-7756-2021-70-10},
issn = {2225-7756},
journal = {Visnyk of V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University. A Series of Psychology},
title = {{Theoretical Model of Behavioral Consequences of Faith in Conspiracy Theory}},
year = {2021}
}
@misc{Borba2021,
author = {Borba, Rodrigo},
booktitle = {Global Discourse},
doi = {10.1332/204378921X16203663668845},
issn = {20437897},
keywords = {Brazil,COVID-19,Conspiracy theories,Neoliberalism,Neonationalism},
title = {{‘Fora, Bolsonaro genocida!': COVID-19 conspiracy theories, neo-nationalism and neoliberal necropolitics in Brazil. A reply to Kalil et al (2021)}},
year = {2021}
}
@article{Pivetti2021,
abstract = {During the coronavirus pandemic, this study aimed to investigate the impact of conspiracy beliefs on Finnish attitudes toward vaccinations in general and COVID-19 vaccinations in particular. This study was a conceptual replication in Finland of a study by Pivetti et al. (2021). Some 529 Finnish participants responded to a self-report questionnaire during the partial lockdown in Finland in spring 2020. The hypothesized relationships between variables of interest were integrated in a serial multiple mediation model via structural equation modelling. Results showed that endorsing general conspiracy beliefs directly predicted (1) general attitudes toward vaccines and (2) COVID-19 conspiracy beliefs, and indirectly predicted (3) attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccines via the serial mediation of COVID-19 conspiracy beliefs and general attitudes toward vaccines. As for the antecedents of beliefs in conspiracy theories, political orientation and moral purity predicted beliefs in COVID-19 conspiracy theories. Trust in science was inversely related to general conspiracy beliefs. As for the consequences of conspiracy beliefs, COVID-19 conspiracy beliefs directly predicted support for governmental restrictions (negatively) and the perception of informational contamination (positively).},
author = {Pivetti, Monica and {Di Battista}, Silvia and Paleari, Francesca Giorgia and Hakok{\"{o}}ng{\"{a}}s, Eemeli},
doi = {10.1177/18344909211039893},
issn = {18344909},
journal = {Journal of Pacific Rim Psychology},
keywords = {COVID-19 vaccinations,Finland,conspiracy beliefs,public health,trust in science,vaccines},
title = {{Conspiracy beliefs and attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccinations: A conceptual replication study in Finland}},
year = {2021}
}
@article{Kuhne2021,
abstract = {The aim of this article is an explorative study of the debate on the flood in the western part of Germany in July 2021, based on the comments found below the coverage of a German public television channel (ZDF) published on YouTube. Based on the neopragmatic framing of the analysis by connecting morality and mass media according to Luhmann, as well as Dahrendorf's conflict theory, four patterns of interpretation were identified which illustrate a high moralization of the conflict: conclusions drawn from the storm (e.g., of a political nature, references to COVID‐19, etc.), far‐reaching, predominantly negative interpretations that place the storm and its consequences in the context of other negatively interpreted aspects, as well as rational and empathetic interpretations regarding expressions of sympathy and offers of help, and, ultimately, interpretations that range from climate change and planning failures to various conspiracy-theoretical claims of responsibility for the flooding. All in all, a transformation from conflicts of interest and facts to conflicts of identity and values is taking place, revealing two utopias: the utopia in which man and nature are in harmonic unity, as well as the utopia of the satisfaction of individual (material) needs in a stable material‐spatial and legal framework. Science has an instrumental application in both utopias.},
author = {K{\"{u}}hne, Olaf and Koegst, Lara and Zimmer, Marie Luise and Sch{\"{a}}ffauer, Greta},
doi = {10.3390/su132011427},
issn = {20711050},
journal = {Sustainability (Switzerland)},
keywords = {Climate change,Conflict,Conspiracy theory,Dahrendorf,Flood,Luhmann,Moralization,West germany},
title = {{“{\ldots} Inconceivable, unrealistic and inhumane”. Internet communication on the flood disaster in west germany of july 2021 between conspiracy theories and moralization— A neopragmatic explorative study}},
year = {2021}
}
@misc{Leonard2021,
abstract = {In the original article, there was an error in the Funding statement as published. The correct grant number for Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada is #430-2018-00740. The corrected Funding statement is shown below.},
author = {Leonard, Marie Jeanne and Philippe, Frederick L.},
booktitle = {Frontiers in Psychology},
doi = {10.3389/fpsyg.2021.748874},
issn = {16641078},
keywords = {conspiracy beliefs,conspiracy theories,needs,public health,radicalization,self-determination theory},
title = {{Corrigendum: Conspiracy Theories: A Public Health Concern and How to Address It (Front. Psychol, (2021), 12, (682931), 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.682931)}},
year = {2021}
}
@article{Albarracin2021,
abstract = {This chapter suggests that the scholarship on how arguments acquire plausibility and un-falsifiability is nascent and that research attention is warranted. It explains which processes increase conspiracy beliefs and highlights the role of ego-defensive motivations. The literature is populated with studies based on college students and non-representative samples. Moreover, research has not paid sufficient attention to the degree to which social media and other digital technologies contribute to the dissemination of conspiracy theories and other pernicious forms of fake news. In the future, more diverse national samples and research different technologies should shed further light on the post-truth era in which we live. The chapter proposes that conspiracy theories are a fascinating case of an argument that is predicated on the basis of both verifiability and un-verifiability. These two poles connect conspiracy theories with all fundamental human needs: the need for knowledge, the need for ego defense, and the need for social integration. In so doing, conspiracy theories provide a pseudo-reality that is plausible or nearly scientific but retains the mystery of cover-ups. This marriage makes these beliefs quite enduring and challenging to correct. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)},
author = {Albarracin, Dolores},
issn = {9780367271831 (Paperback); 978-0-367-27181-7 (Hardcover); 978-0-429-29537-9 (Digital (undefined format))},
journal = {The psychology of fake news: Accepting, sharing, and correcting misinformation.},
keywords = {*Information,*News Media,*Social Integration,*Social Media,*Truth,Ego,Knowledge (General)},
title = {{Conspiracy beliefs: Knowledge, ego defense, and social integration in the processing of fake news.}},
year = {2021}
}
@misc{Froehlich2021,
abstract = {The paper offers some thoughts prompted by the research paper published by Peter Lor, Bradley Wiles, and Johannes Britz, “Re-Thinking Information Ethics: Truth, Conspiracy Theories, and Librarians in the COVID-19 Era,” in LIBRI, March 2021. It highlights two significant contributions, an analysis of the misinformation in the COVID-19 pandemic and the notion of alethic rights, the right of truth of patrons based on the work of D'Agostini. This reflection then situates the COVID-19 misinformation campaign within the broader disinformation ecology within which it exists. While it agrees that alethic rights are an important ethical framework, it wonders whether it practically advances work beyond that libraries and librarians are already doing, e.g., in collection decisions, approaches to reference questions, or library programming. It looks at the debate between John Swan and Noel Peattie on the inclusion of books representing outright lies in the collection (e.g., Holocaust denial). It then contrasts a right to information and authorities propagating and validating that information with a right to misinformation and authorities for propagating and validating that misinformation that exists within disinformation ecologies. The problem of truth, its authorities and its context appears to be more complicated than an appeal to alethic truths: for example, liberals and conservatives differ on the meaning of a rational consensus on contentious political matters, such as climate change. Given the dire consequences of misinformation on democracies and public health, an appeal to professional neutrality is woefully inadequate. There must be proactive resistance, if not outright repudiation.},
author = {Froehlich, Thomas},
booktitle = {Libri},
doi = {10.1515/libri-2021-0061},
issn = {00242667},
keywords = {Alethic rights,COVID-19 misinformation,Disinformation ecologies,Library responses to misinformation,Right to misinformation},
title = {{Some Thoughts Evoked by Peter Lor, Bradley Wiles, and Johannes Britz, “Re-thinking Information Ethics: Truth, conspiracy theories, and librarians in the COViD-19 era,” in Libri, March 2021}},
year = {2021}
}
@article{Pivetti2021a,
abstract = {During the coronavirus pandemic, this study aimed to investigate the impact of conspiracy beliefs on Finnish attitudes toward vaccinations in general and COVID-19 vaccinations in particular. This study was a conceptual replication in Finland of a study by Pivetti et al. (2021) . Some 529 Finnish participants responded to a self-report questionnaire during the partial lockdown in Finland in spring 2020. The hypothesized relationships between variables of interest were integrated in a serial multiple mediation model via structural equation modelling. Results showed that endorsing general conspiracy beliefs directly predicted (1) general attitudes toward vaccines and (2) COVID-19 conspiracy beliefs, and indirectly predicted (3) attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccines via the serial mediation of COVID-19 conspiracy beliefs and general attitudes toward vaccines. As for the antecedents of beliefs in conspiracy theories, political orientation and moral purity predicted beliefs in COVID-19 conspiracy theories. Trust in science was inversely related to general conspiracy beliefs. As for the consequences of conspiracy beliefs, COVID-19 conspiracy beliefs directly predicted support for governmental restrictions (negatively) and the perception of informational contamination (positively).},
author = {Pivetti, Monica and {Di Battista}, Silvia and Paleari, Francesca Giorgia and Hakok{\"{o}}ng{\"{a}}s, Eemeli},
doi = {10.1177/18344909211039893},
issn = {1834-4909},
journal = {Journal of Pacific Rim Psychology},
title = {{Conspiracy beliefs and attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccinations}},
year = {2021}
}
@article{Enders2021,
abstract = {Growing levels of polarization and out-group hostility have become fashionable explanations for the caustic politics of the Trump presidency. However, partisan and ideological identities cannot explain popular attraction to Trump's anti-elite and populist rhetoric, nor can polarization and sorting account for rising levels of mass identification as political independents. In light of these discrepancies, we offer an explanation for the Trump era unrelated to traditional left-right identities and ideologies: anti-establishment orientations. We argue that much of what is interpreted as an expression of partisan and ideological extremism or polarization is actually the product of a deep-seated antagonism toward the broader political establishment. We first exhibit the individual-level correlates of anti-establishment orientations, finding that people holding strong anti-establishment views exhibit relatively high levels of anti-social personality traits and distrust of others. We then show that anti-establishment orientations are more predictive than left-right orientations of beliefs in conspiracy theories regarding COVID-19, QAnon, and voter fraud. Most importantly, we demonstrate that, while anti-establishment orientations are positively related to support for Donald Trump, they are negatively related to support for Joe Biden and both major parties. In short, the toxicity emblematic of the Trump era - support for outsider candidates, belief in conspiracy theories, corrosive rhetoric, and violence - are derivative of antipathy towards the established political order, rather than a strict adherence to partisan and ideological dogma. We conclude that Trump's most powerful and unique impact on American electoral politics is his activation, inflammation, and manipulation of preexisting anti-establishment orientations for partisan ends.},
author = {Enders, Adam M. and Uscinski, Joseph E.},
doi = {10.1515/for-2021-0003},
issn = {15408884},
journal = {Forum (Germany)},
keywords = {QAnon,anti-establishment,conspiracy theory,extremism,voter fraud},
title = {{The Role of Anti-Establishment Orientations during the Trump Presidency}},
year = {2021}
}
@article{Author2021,
abstract = {QAnon is a baseless and debunked conspiracy theory propagated through Internet social media, with bizarre beliefs that are nevertheless shared by millions of Americans. After the 1/6/2021 Capitol Hill riot, QAnon followers were identified among those breaching the Capitol Hill building, spurring comparisons with ISIS and debates about how to deradicalize QAnon followers. Using the Two-Pyramids model of radicalization in conjunction with polling data, this Research Note highlights the relatively small threat of radical action from QAnon. We argue that deradicalization efforts aimed at QAnon opinions are a waste of resources and potentially dangerous in exaggerating the QAnon threat and increasing Right-Wing perception of government over-reach.},
author = {Author, Qanon and Moskalenko, Sophia and Mccauley, Clark},
journal = {Source: Perspectives on Terrorism},
title = {{QAnon}},
year = {2021}
}
@article{Gabriel2021,
abstract = {New labor market entrants face significant hurdles when searching for a job, with these stressors likely amplified during the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we consider how COVID-induced job search anxiety—feeling anxious about one's job search due to issues imposed by the pandemic—has the potential to affect adaptive, goal-directed efforts, and maladaptive, goal-avoidant reactions. We theorize that this anxiety can prompt job seekers to engage in problem-solving pondering and affect-focused rumination, with these experiences relating to whether job seekers engage in various forms of search-related efforts the following week. In particular, we consider whether job seekers are engaging in dream job search effort (i.e., effort toward pursuing one's dream job), as well as focused (i.e., effort toward a selection of carefully screened jobs), exploratory (i.e., effort toward a wide swath of jobs in a broad manner), and haphazard (i.e., effort toward applying for any job without a clear plan) job search effort. Further, we consider how stable beliefs relevant to the pandemic (i.e., belief in conspiracy theories; belief in COVID-19 being a public health crisis) affect the aforementioned relationships. Using a weekly study of 162 new labor market entrants, results indicated that COVID-induced job search anxiety positively related to problem-solving pondering and affect-focused rumination; problem-solving pondering promoted dream, focused, and exploratory job search effort the following week, whereas affect-focused rumination hindered dream job search effort. Finally, the detrimental effects of COVID-induced job search anxiety via affect-focused rumination were amplified for those who held higher levels of conspiracy theory beliefs. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)},
author = {Gabriel, Allison S. and MacGowan, Rebecca L. and Ganster, Mahira L. and Slaughter, Jerel E.},
doi = {10.1037/apl0000926},
issn = {19391854},
journal = {Journal of Applied Psychology},
keywords = {COVID-19,anxiety,dream job,effort,job search},
pmid = {34096740},
title = {{The influence of COVID-induced job search anxiety and conspiracy beliefs on job search effort: A within-person investigation.}},
year = {2021}
}
@article{Kavanagh2021,
abstract = {One June 15, 2021, infectious disease authorities from around the world participated in a joint webinar to share experiences and lessons learned in combatting the COVID-19 pandemic. One of the overriding goals of the conference “COVID-19 Lessons Learned: A Global Perspective” was to provide documentation of worldwide COVID-19 response strategies, in order to combat the plethora of misinformation and conspiracy theories that are being actively disseminated. This misinformation is having a profound negative impact on controlling the pandemic in many countries. Misinformation which was addressed in the conference included challenging the seriousness of COVID-19 infections, a refusal to recognize aerosolization as the major mechanism of spread, a belief that schools can be opened safely without implementation of extensive control strategies, and that masks and vaccines are not effective. A second goal was the identification of common strategies between nations. Common strategies included the implementation of a range of closures, mask mandates, travel bans and the need for expanded testing. But of utmost importance there was recognition of the need to implement a coordinated national strategy, which is depoliticized and led by scientists.},
author = {Kavanagh, Kevin T. and Pontus, Christine and Pare, Judith and Cormier, Lindsay E.},
doi = {10.1186/s13756-021-00992-x},
issn = {20472994},
journal = {Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control},
pmid = {34446112},
title = {{COVID-19 lessons learned: a global perspective}},
year = {2021}
}
@article{Melton2021,
abstract = {Background: The COVID-19 pandemic fueled one of the most rapid vaccine developments in history. However, misinformation spread through online social media often leads to negative vaccine sentiment and hesitancy. Methods: To investigate COVID-19 vaccine-related discussion in social media, we conducted a sentiment analysis and Latent Dirichlet Allocation topic modeling on textual data collected from 13 Reddit communities focusing on the COVID-19 vaccine from Dec 1, 2020, to May 15, 2021. Data were aggregated and analyzed by month to detect changes in any sentiment and latent topics. Results: Polarity analysis suggested these communities expressed more positive sentiment than negative regarding the vaccine-related discussions and has remained static over time. Topic modeling revealed community members mainly focused on side effects rather than outlandish conspiracy theories. Conclusion: Covid-19 vaccine-related content from 13 subreddits show that the sentiments expressed in these communities are overall more positive than negative and have not meaningfully changed since December 2020. Keywords indicating vaccine hesitancy were detected throughout the LDA topic modeling. Public sentiment and topic modeling analysis regarding vaccines could facilitate the implementation of appropriate messaging, digital interventions, and new policies to promote vaccine confidence.},
author = {Melton, Chad A. and Olusanya, Olufunto A. and Ammar, Nariman and Shaban-Nejad, Arash},
doi = {10.1016/j.jiph.2021.08.010},
issn = {1876035X},
journal = {Journal of Infection and Public Health},
keywords = {COVID-19,Misinformation,Sentiment analysis,Topic modeling,Vaccine hesitancy},
pmid = {34426095},
title = {{Public sentiment analysis and topic modeling regarding COVID-19 vaccines on the Reddit social media platform: A call to action for strengthening vaccine confidence}},
year = {2021}
}
@article{Woodman2021,
abstract = {In this paper it is argued: (1) that the First Catilinarian Conspiracy of 66-65 BC, described by Sallust at BC 18-19, is not 'fiction' (as is almost universally assumed); and (2) that the revolutionary plans ascribed by Sallust to Catiline in 64 BC (BC 17, 20-3) have not been retrojected from the following year (as is also almost universally assumed).},
author = {Woodman, A. J.},
doi = {10.25162/HISTORIA-2021-0003},
issn = {00182311},
journal = {Historia - Zeitschrift fur Alte Geschichte},
keywords = {Catiline,First conspiracy,Revolutionary plans,Sallust},
title = {{Sallust and catiline: Conspiracy theories}},
year = {2021}
}
@article{Blackburn2021,
author = {Blackburn, Simon},
doi = {10.1007/s12115-021-00570-2},
issn = {1936-4725},
journal = {Society},
title = {{Conspiracy Theories by Quassim Cassam: Polity Press, 2021 ed., 140 pp., ISBN: 978-1509535835}},
year = {2021}
}
@article{Bernhard2021,
author = {Bernhard, Roland},
doi = {10.1515/phw-2021-17608},
journal = {Public History Weekly},
title = {{Fake News, Conspiracy Theories and Textbooks}},
year = {2021}
}
@article{Moskalenko2021,
abstract = {QAnon is a baseless and debunked conspiracy theory propagated through Internet social media, with bizarre beliefs that are nevertheless shared by millions of Americans. After the 1/6/2021 Capitol Hill riot, QAnon followers were identified among those breaching the Capitol Hill building, spurring comparisons with ISIS and debates about how to deradicalize QAnon followers. Using the Two-Pyramids model of radicalization in conjunction with polling data, this Research Note highlights the relatively small threat of radical action from QAnon. We argue that deradicalization efforts aimed at QAnon opinions are a waste of resources and potentially dangerous in exaggerating the QAnon threat and increasing Right-Wing perception of government over-reach.},
author = {Moskalenko, Sophia and McCauley, Clark},
issn = {23343745},
journal = {Perspectives on Terrorism},
keywords = {Countering Violent Extremism (CVE),QAnon,Two-Pyramids model,United States,radical action,radical opinion,radicalization},
title = {{QAiion: Radical Opinion versus Radical Action}},
year = {2021}
}
@article{Kydd2021,
abstract = {The attack on the US Capitol on January 6, 2021 was the result of a perception of relative decline on the part of American conservatives and their simultaneous radicalization. Relative decline and radicalization are both potent causes of violence. When a formerly dominant group is in decline, it may fear that in the future it will lack the bargaining power to maintain the status quo, and so resort to violence to prevent decline, or lock in present advantages. Radicalization increases the perceived stakes of power transitions; if the opponent is dangerous, all means are justified in preventing their accession to power. Conservative radicalization was driven by partisan polarization, media polarization, the emergence of social media and associated conspiracy theories, and the formation of armed right-wing groups. The structural conditions generating the attack are unlikely to ameliorate, so the potential for political violence will remain.},
author = {Kydd, Andrew H.},
doi = {10.1177/26330024211010043},
issn = {2633-0024},
journal = {Violence: An International Journal},
title = {{Decline, radicalization and the attack on the US Capitol}},
year = {2021}
}
@article{Kuo2021,
abstract = {This study examines the confrontation between Taiwan and Covid in the period before the virus finally invaded and spread widely on the island in May 2021. While the general approach to Taiwan's success in keeping the virus out is historical, stating the policy lessons learned from previous anti-pandemic experience, the study focuses on how these coping strategies were able to be made and conducted with little disruption from misinformation and conspiracy theories. Inspired by Sheila Jasanoff's notion of how science and technology are received through different political and policy systems, and by Bruno Latour's semiotic reflections on the actor-network theory, the STS take on post-truth politics here is institutional and discursive: instead of focusing on the scientific and the misleading in individual policies, I provide an ethnography of rumour and scientific discourse on Covid, capturing their interactions and net effects in the context of policy discussions. Following closely the daily press conferences held by the Central Epidemic Command Center (CECC), the only official information source for the Covid pandemic, I argue that discursive frames were made upon the limited information given and few confirmed cases found. Through the expert authority and ‘what if?' scenarios seen at these conferences, Taiwan's anti-Covid policies came to be presented as a narrative on crises and what the government was doing to get over them, and rumours were either ignored or marginalised. Meanwhile, though disputes and speculations on pandemic control did exist among experts, they only surfaced after the local outbreak, whereupon conspiracy theories flared up, challenging the already exhausted CECC. Together, the excessive information by experts, health professionals, policy analysists and talkshow hosts composes a ‘post-truth normal' that has started to place Taiwan's democracy and its trust in expertise on trial.},
author = {Kuo, Wen Hua},
doi = {10.1177/09717218211032894},
issn = {09730796},
journal = {Science, Technology and Society},
keywords = {Covid pandemic,Post-truth,Taiwan,misinformation,the Central Epidemic Command Center (Taiwan)},
title = {{Channeling Facts, Crouching Rumours: Taiwan's Post-Truth Encounter with the Covid Pandemic}},
year = {2021}
}
@article{Lo2021,
abstract = {To underpin the psychological factors for vaccination intention, we explored the variables related to positive and negative attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccination in Taiwan. The data were collected via an online survey platform with a sample size of 1100 in April 2021. We found that people's interpretations of the origin of the virus were relevant. People who tended to believe that the virus was artificially created felt powerless and were more concerned about the possible side-effects of the vaccines, which was negatively associated with their vaccination intention. The source of vaccine recommendation was found to be relevant to vaccination intention. People's vaccination intention was highest if the vaccines were recommended by health professionals, followed by friends and the government, and then mainstream media and social media. The analysis of the demographic variables showed that men tended to be more receptive to vaccines than women. Our findings should provide insights into developing communication strategies to effectively promote vaccination intentions.},
author = {Lo, Shih Yu and Li, Shu Chu Sarrina and Wu, Tai Yee},
doi = {10.3390/vaccines9070764},
issn = {2076393X},
journal = {Vaccines},
keywords = {COVID-19,Conspiracy theories,Mental models,Powerlessness,Vaccination intention},
title = {{Exploring psychological factors for COVID-19 vaccination intention in taiwan}},
year = {2021}
}
@article{Schake2021,
abstract = {The events of January 6, 2021, when violent rioters attacked the Capitol building in Washington in order to disrupt validation of the 2020 presidential election, forced an unprecedented reckoning with the state of American politics. Members of Congress struggled to account for the rhetoric that gave rise to the event; law enforcement grappled with the challenge of holding accountable those who perpetrated the violence; and journalistic outlets wrestled with reporting a complex web of conspiracy theories and disinformation that gave rise to the insurrection. But for senior military leaders, the question was how to explain the troubling presence of active duty servicemembers and veterans in the first attack on the American seat of government in two centuries. The result is a profound and urgent discussion in U.S. civil-military relations.},
author = {Schake, Kori and Robinson, Michael},
doi = {10.1016/j.orbis.2021.06.013},
issn = {00304387},
journal = {Orbis},
title = {{Assessing Civil-Military Relations and the January 6th Capitol Insurrection}},
year = {2021}
}
@article{Rafique2021,
abstract = {{\ldots} Lu, W., Wang, H., Lin, Y., & Li, L. (2020). Psychological status of medical workforce during the COVID-19 pandemic: A cross-sectional study {\ldots} Int J Ment Health Syst 10: 51. Yousaf, K. (2020, May 4). Covid-19 and conspiracy theories. The Express Tribune {\ldots}},
author = {Rafique, Nadia},
doi = {10.35484/pssr.2021(5-i)13},
issn = {26640422},
journal = {Pakistan Social Sciences Review},
title = {{Impact of Covid-19 Pandemic and Conspiracy Belief on Psychological Distress in University Students}},
year = {2021}
}
@article{Nossier2021,
abstract = {The availability of an effective vaccine and wide coverage are two crucial factors for the success of vaccination programs. In the early times of the COVID-19 pandemic , the development of an effective vaccine was a mere hope. When this hope turned to be a reality-and one that was realised within an unprecedented time for the development of any other vaccine-, the general population's response towards receiving the new vaccines was less than optimal. Despite strong evidence that vaccines have proven to be highly effective at preventing both infection and serious illness from COVID-19 [1-3], a high percentage of people still express hesitancy about it [4, 5]. Vaccine hesitancy is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "Vaccine hesitancy refers to delay in acceptance or refusal of vaccination despite availability of vaccination services. Vaccine hesitancy is complex and context-specific, varying across time, place and vaccines. It is influenced by factors such as complacency , convenience and confidence". The WHO SAGE Working Group on Vaccine Hesitancy describes hesitancy on a continuum between full acceptance and outright refusal and recognises that hesitance can be to a single or multiple vaccines [6]. The reasons for this behaviour are multifaceted, culture-specific, and often not completely understood [7]. The reluctance or refusal to vaccinate is commonly encountered in almost all vaccination programs. It is usually the result of a combination of factors, such as the perceived risk and severity of infection, confidence in vaccines, values and emotions, as well as environmental and social contexts. COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy has some unique characteristics that are linked to the rapid development of the vaccines, the relatively new techniques used for development of the vaccines, the new mutations of the virus, the occurrence of rare but severe adverse reactions, the need for continued engagement in preventive behaviour even if and after people have been vaccinated, and the diversity and continuous change of policy responses around the world. In addition, being a new disease, the continuous flow of new information about the symptoms, severity, and mortality resulted in confusion and fluctuation in people's perception of the risks and consequently in uncertainty about the effectiveness of the developed vaccines [8]. Low confidence in vaccination was also heightened by the abundance of misinformation, rumours and false conspiracy theories that circulated in the media [7]. The rates of acceptance and willingness to be vaccinated have varied greatly over the time of the pandemic. Before the availability of COVID-19 vaccines, studies that assessed attitudes of the general public towards vaccines revealed the existence of regional variability with regard to the perception of the safety and effectiveness of vaccination. Higher-income regions were the least certain regarding vaccine safety with 72-73% of people in North America and Northern Europe unsure if vaccines are safe. However, the majority of people in lower-income areas agreed that vaccines are safe. A similar pattern was observed regarding vaccine effectiveness [9]. When more information was available about the process of development of the new vaccines, a lot of misinformation and rumours resulted in lowering the trust of the public in the safety and effectiveness of the vaccine. A systematic review (2021) [10] showed that the Middle East was among the regions with the lowest COVID-19 vaccine acceptance rates globally. Such low rates were most probably related to the widespread beliefs in conspiracy theories in the region. For other parts of the world, the speed at which COVID-19 vaccines were developed and reports of anaphylaxis [11] and blood clots in people receiving the AstraZeneca vaccine in Europe [12] may be causing apprehension that},
author = {Nossier, Samia A.},
doi = {10.1186/s42506-021-00081-2},
issn = {2090-262X},
journal = {Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association},
title = {{Vaccine hesitancy: the greatest threat to COVID-19 vaccination programs}},
year = {2021}
}
@article{Burel2021,
abstract = {Correcting misconceptions and false beliefs are important for injecting reliable information about COVID-19 into public discourse, but what impact does this have on the continued proliferation of misinforming claims? Fact-checking organisations produce content with the aim of reducing misinformation spread, but our knowledge of its impact on misinformation for particular topics and demographics is limited. In this article, we explore the relation between misinformation and fact-checking spread during the COVID-19 pandemic for different topics, user demographics and attributes. We specifically follow misinformation and fact-checks emerging from December 2019 until the 4th of January 2021 on Twitter. Using a combination of spread variance analysis, impulse response modelling and causal analysis, we highlight the bidirectional, weak causation spread behaviour between misinformation and fact-checks. Although we observe that fact-checks about COVID-19 are appearing fairly quickly after misinformation is circulated, its ability to reduce overall misinformation spread appears to be limited. This is especially visible for misinformation about conspiracy theories and the causes of the virus.},
author = {Burel, Gr{\'{e}}goire and Farrell, Tracie and Alani, Harith},
doi = {10.1016/j.ipm.2021.102732},
issn = {03064573},
journal = {Information Processing and Management},
keywords = {COVID-19,Demographics,Fact-checking,Misinformation,Social media},
title = {{Demographics and topics impact on the co-spread of COVID-19 misinformation and fact-checks on Twitter}},
year = {2021}
}
@article{,
doi = {10.18356/22202293-2021-2-12},
journal = {The UNESCO Courier},
title = {{Ideas: Conspiracy theories: Linked to literature}},
year = {2021}
}
@article{Crossley2021,
abstract = {It was almost inevitable that something as dominant as the COVID crisis of 2020–2021 would change how the Bible has been understood in mainstream political discourses. It is also unsurprising that the language associated with apocalypticism would come to the fore. Building on recent scholarship, this article looks at some of the language about ‘the apocalypse' and apocalypticism, including that associated with Revelation and the New Testament, and how understandings of the Bible in contemporary political discourses have now been updated. The focus is primarily on England/Britain, America and New Zealand because these countries have been the object of much of the work on the reception history of the Bible in politics. This article also analyses the dominant cliches about the Bible as a source of liberalism, neoliberalism, left-leaning radicalism, and the far right. Examples include the use of apocalyptic themes in relation to QAnon and conspiracy theories, ready-made ironic language to describe lockdown, radical social transformation, and constructing political positions outside the traditional liberal consensus.},
author = {Crossley, James},
doi = {10.1177/0142064X211025464},
issn = {17455294},
journal = {Journal for the Study of the New Testament},
keywords = {Apocalypticism,COVID-19,QAnon,apocalypse,far right,liberalism},
title = {{The Apocalypse and Political Discourse in an Age of COVID}},
year = {2021}
}
@article{Johnson2021,
abstract = {Objectives: To identify factors—e.g., demographics, beliefs and attitudes about COVID-19 and its vaccines, trust of authorities—associated with vaccination intentions, and whether associations changed.

Methods: A nationally representative sample of Americans was surveyed in late October 2020 (n = 1028), and in February 2021 (n = 803), about their intention to get the vaccine, with hypothesized factors assessed in both waves.

Results: Perceived vaccine attributes (efficacy, riskiness, affect, dread), seasonal flu vaccination experience, and trust in authorities and belief in conspiracy theories were the strongest factors overall, particularly in Wave 2 (with Wave 1 intentions); demographics were stronger factors when COVID-19 vaccines were still hypothetical.

Conclusions: Despite changing concerns about particular U.S. demographic groups' COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, the strongest factors in vaccination intention concerned vaccine experience and vaccine beliefs and attitudes that may be influenced by education, and by trust and belief in conspiracy theories perhaps harder to change. Use of a novel longitudinal design, which here revealed moderate differences in intention-predictive factors over time, is warranted in future research to gain greater insight into vaccine hesitancy.
},
author = {Johnson, Branden B.},
doi = {10.2139/ssrn.3877511},
journal = {SSRN Electronic Journal},
title = {{Factors in Intention to Get the COVID-19 Vaccine Change Over Time: Evidence from a Two-Wave U.S. Study}},
year = {2021}
}
@article{Hristov2021,
author = {Hristov, Todor},
doi = {10.1515/sem-2021-0007},
issn = {0037-1998},
journal = {Semiotica},
title = {{Review of Conspiracy theories as a form of phatic communication}},
year = {2021}
}
@article{Hernandez-Garcia2021,
abstract = {Our objective was to analyze the sources, characteristics, tone, and content of the most viewed YouTube videos in Spanish about Covid-19 vaccines. In February 2021, a search was carried out on YouTube using the terms “Vacuna Covid,” “Vacuna coronavirus,” and “Vacuna Covid19.” Associations between tone, source, and others variables (e.g. number of views or dislikes) were studied with a Mann–Whitney U-test and a chi-square test. A total of 118 videos were analyzed; 63.6% were originated from Mexico and the USA; media created 57.6% of the videos. Positive tone was observed in 53.4%. The most discussed topics were target groups for vaccination (38.9%) and safety (43.2%). The 68 videos produced by media accumulated 31,565,295 views (55.0% of views), and the 19 videos created by health professionals obtained 10,742,825 views (18.7% of views). A significantly smaller number of likes was obtained in videos of media compared to those created by health professionals (p = .004). Videos made by health professionals, compared to those of media, showed a greater positive tone (OR = 3.09). Hoaxes/conspiracy theories were identified in 1.7% of the videos. Monitoring that the information on YouTube about Covid-19 vaccines is reliable should be a central part of Covid-19 vaccination campaigns.},
author = {Hern{\'{a}}ndez-Garc{\'{i}}a, Ignacio and Gasc{\'{o}}n-Gim{\'{e}}nez, Irene and Gasc{\'{o}}n-Gim{\'{e}}nez, Alba and Gim{\'{e}}nez-J{\'{u}}lvez, Teresa},
doi = {10.1080/21645515.2021.1957416},
issn = {2164554X},
journal = {Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics},
keywords = {Covid-19 vaccines,Spanish,YouTube,evaluation,information},
title = {{Information in Spanish on YouTube about Covid-19 vaccines}},
year = {2021}
}
@article{Bond2021,
abstract = {This essay argues that the insurrection at the United States Capitol on January 6, 2021, can be partially explained by the rise of what we call presidential eschatology, a religious master narrative that represents a historic shift from presidents appealing to God to presidents becoming a messiah figure. More specifically, we trace President Trump's embrace of this kind of religious discourse—which we contend is a form of weaponized political communication aiming to undermine democracy—to his acceptance of a millennialist narrative fashioned by QAnon conspiracy theorists. Through a close reading of primary sources from the movement, the study illustrates how these eschatological themes surfaced in QAnon's discourse and were exploited by Trump and his allies as they sought to overturn the 2020 presidential election.},
author = {Bond, Bayleigh Elaine and Neville-Shepard, Ryan},
doi = {10.1177/00027642211046557},
issn = {15523381},
journal = {American Behavioral Scientist},
keywords = {QAnon,conspiracy rhetoric,eschatology,political violence,presidential eschatology},
title = {{The Rise of Presidential Eschatology: Conspiracy Theories, Religion, and the January 6th Insurrection}},
year = {2021}
}
@article{DINULESCU2021,
abstract = {On January 6, 2021, an angry mob attacked security forces and stormed the United States Congress, a significant portion of which carried placards containing Christian symbols and manifested ultra-religious conduct. The crowd chanted religious slogans and songs mixed with extremist ideological-political landmarks, QAnon conspiracy theories and racist attitudes. The protesters also followed a ritual found in the Bible, in the Old Testament, in the book of Joshua Navi, an Israelite leader to whom God indicated how he would conquer the City of Jericho, full of corrupt and fornicating people if he obeyed the divine command. The participants in the assault followed the same ritual to “conquer” the fortress of the Capitol a month before and repeated it starting with January 5, 2021. Since religion is the belief in God and represents the relationship between the faithful man and divinity, the acquisition of elements of political ideology by ultra-religious people was considered natural and mandatory in shaping a society to develop on Christian principles in the form of a “Christian city”. In this article, by analyzing the attitude of the Christian community in two distinct phases, before and during and after the assault on the US Congress, the result of the manifestation of the phenomenon of ultrareligiosity combined with an extremist political ideology will be revealed.},
author = {DINULESCU, Iulian},
doi = {10.53477/1841-5784-21-05},
issn = {1841-5784},
journal = {Strategic Impact},
title = {{RELIGION AND POLITICS IN THE CONTEXT OF THE 6 JANUARY 2021 ASSAULT ON THE US CONGRESS}},
year = {2021}
}
@article{Kachurka2021,
abstract = {Although mass vaccination is the best way out of the pandemic, the share of skeptics is substantial in most countries. Social campaigns can emphasize the many arguments that potentially increase acceptance for vaccines: e.g., that they have been developed, tested, and recommended by doctors and scientists; and that they are safe, effective, and in demand. We verified the effectiveness of such messages in an online experiment conducted in February and March 2021 with a sample of almost six thousand adult Poles, which was nationally representative in terms of key demographic variables. We presented respondents with different sets of information about vaccinating against COVID-19. After reading the information bundle, they indicated whether they would be willing to be vaccinated. We also asked them to justify their answers and indicate who or what might change their opinion. Finally, we elicited a number of individual characteristics and opinions. We found that nearly 45% of the respondents were unwilling to be vaccinated, and none of the popular messages we used was effective in reducing this hesitancy. We also observed a number of significant correlates of vaccination attitudes, with men, older, wealthier, and non-religious individuals, those with higher education, and those trusting science rather than COVID-19 conspiracy theories being more willing to be vaccinated. We discuss important consequences for campaigns aimed at reducing COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy.},
author = {Kachurka, Raman and Krawczyk, Micha{\l} and Rachubik, Joanna},
doi = {10.3390/vaccines9101113},
issn = {2076393X},
journal = {Vaccines},
keywords = {COVID-19,Persuasion,Vaccine acceptance,Vaccine hesitancy,Vaccine refusal,Vaccine uptake},
title = {{Persuasive messages will not increase COVID-19 vaccine acceptance: evidence from a nationwide online experiment}},
year = {2021}
}
@article{Barry2021,
abstract = {They came from around the country with different affiliations — QAnon, Proud Boys, elected officials, everyday Americans — united by one allegiance.},
author = {Barry, Dan and McIntire, Mike and Rosenberg, Matthew},
issn = {0362-4331},
journal = {The New York Times},
keywords = {2021),Conspiracy Theories,Demonstrations,Donald J,Fringe Groups and Movements,Presidential Election of 2020,Protests and Riots,QAnon,Right-Wing Extremism and Alt-Right,Social Media,Storming of the US Capitol (Jan,Trump,United States Politics and Government,Washington (DC)},
title = {{‘Our President Wants Us Here': The Mob That Stormed the Capitol}},
year = {2021}
}
@article{Guillon2021,
abstract = {Objectives: The objective of the study is to investigate the factors associated with COVID-19 vaccination intentions and attitudes in France. Study design: An online cross-sectional study was conducted among a representative sample of the French population between November 20th and 23rd 2020 (N = 1146). Methods: Factors associated with the intention to get vaccinated and with COVID-19 vaccine attitudes were estimated using ordered logistic and multinomial logistic regressions, respectively. Independent variables of interest include COVID-19 and vaccine perceptions, trust, endorsement of COVID-19 conspiracy theories and time/risk preferences. Results: Only 30.5% of our respondents would agree to get vaccinated against COVID-19 during the first semester of 2021 while 31.1% declare being unsure of their vaccination intentions. COVID-19 risk perceptions are associated with vaccination intentions and attitudes. Individual and collective benefits of the vaccine and the concerns over its safety are strongly associated with COVID-19 vaccination intentions and attitudes. Vaccine acceptors are more willing to take risks in the health domain compared with vaccine hesitant respondents which indicates that the COVID-19 vaccine is perceived as a greater health risk than the COVID-19 itself by some respondents. We also find a positive association between future preference and the willingness to get vaccinated. Conclusion: Awareness campaigns should be conducted to enhance vaccination uptake among vaccine hesitant individuals. These campaigns could highlight the positive benefit-risk balance of the COVID-19 vaccines or the short-term benefits of vaccination and should reinsure the public on the safety of the COVID-19 vaccines.},
author = {Guillon, M. and Kergall, P.},
doi = {10.1016/j.puhe.2021.07.035},
issn = {14765616},
journal = {Public Health},
keywords = {COVID-19,France,Health belief model,Time preference,Vaccination},
pmid = {34481275},
title = {{Factors associated with COVID-19 vaccination intentions and attitudes in France}},
year = {2021}
}
@article{Kufel-Grabowska2021,
abstract = {BACKGROUND: The initial approval of the Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna vaccines by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) marked a milestone in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic. The increased public debate about the vaccine development process and vaccine side effects has activated the anti-vaccine community, which has begun to spread conspiracy theories about vaccine safety. OBJECTIVES: Our study is the first to investigate the awareness of Polish patients suffering from various chronic diseases, mainly cancer, about vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An anonymous survey was made available from November 2020 to February 2021 to representatives of patient organizations through social media (Facebook) and to patients in the Chemotherapy Department of the Clinical Hospital in Pozna{\'{n}}. The survey was completed by 836 patients. The majority of the survey respondents had cancer (77%, n = 644), and almost 1/5 of the respondents indicated hypertension (15.7%, n = 131) as well as depression and/or anxiety disorders (11.1%, n = 93). RESULTS: Less than half of the respondents (43.5%, n = 364) believed that SARS-CoV-2 vaccines were safe (40.4%, n = 260, among cancer patients; 53.9%, n = 104, among patients with other medical conditions). More than half of the respondents (60.5%, n = 506) intended to be vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 (58.8%, n = 378, among cancer patients; 66.3%, n = 128, among patients with other medical conditions). Fear of vaccine complications and lack of belief in vaccine effectiveness were prevalent among both cancer patients and patients with other medical conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The vast majority of cancer and medical patients wanted to be vaccinated against COVID-19. More than half of the respondents did not believe that the COVID-19 vaccine would be safe for them. Education of cancer and medical patients on the safety and effectiveness of the vaccine, as well as the use of additional protective measures against infection, is an extremely important element of prevention during the COVID-19 pandemic.},
author = {Kufel-Grabowska, Joanna and Bartoszkiewicz, Miko{\l}aj and Ramlau, Rodryg and Litwiniuk, Maria},
doi = {10.17219/acem/138962},
issn = {18995276},
journal = {Advances in clinical and experimental medicine : official organ Wroclaw Medical University},
keywords = {COVID-19,cancer patients,infection,vaccine},
pmid = {34286517},
title = {{Cancer patients and internal medicine patients attitude towards COVID-19 vaccination in Poland}},
year = {2021}
}
@article{Fru2021,
abstract = {Introduction: The fight against cervical cancer stumbles against resistance to accepting vaccines. Vaccination hesitancy is a worldwide phenomenon. It seems this phenomenon is more amplified in Africa. With the advent of COVID 19, many conspiracy theories against all the vaccines have emanated from various quarters. Vaccination against Human Papilloma Virus is no exception to the current dynamics. A study on this topic was carried out in the Fako Division-Cameroon. Structural and individual reasons could explain vaccination hesitancy.
Objective: The objective of this study is to attempt an explanation of why vaccination hesitancy has to do with poor uptake of cervical cancer vaccines.
Methodology: a community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in some towns of the Fako Division – Cameroon from 5 to January 20, 2021. Paper-based questionnaires were administered only to those who consented to participate in this study. And chi-square test was estimated to establish the association between participant socioeconomic characteristics and cervical cancer vaccine hesitancy
Results: A total of 250 consecutively enrolled participants were included in the study. Women with a high level of education will readily accept vaccination against cervical cancer. About 71% of our sample does not trust government decisions regarding judgments against cervical cancer. If given a choice between medical treatment and prayers, 62% of our studied population will prefer prayers. There is some degree of bias against female children in our community.
Conclusion: Many components constitute vaccination hesitancy. The corruption of political elites, brainwashing of masses by the new type of churches, self-convictions, ignorance, lack of knowledge on CC, and gender bias are some. They all increase on structural causes: the colonial background and the low socioeconomic status of these countries.},
author = {Fru, C. Neh and Andrew, Tassang and Greenspan, David and Cho, F. Nchang and Martin, Mokake and Livingstone, Joseph and Thierry, Tassang and Fru, P. Ngum and Derick, Nembulefac},
doi = {10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i830476},
journal = {International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health},
title = {{Vaccination Hesitancy: The Case of Cervical Cancer Vaccination in Fako Division, Cameroon}},
year = {2021}
}
@article{Bensley2020,
abstract = {Assessment research on the endorsement of unsubstantiated claims, such as conspiracy theories, misconceptions, pseudoscientific assertions, and paranormal beliefs, is important for several reasons. Because accepting unfounded claims may interfere with student learning, assessing them systematically can help us understand what students know and believe. Nevertheless, instructors may not know how to adequately assess their students' unfounded beliefs, thereby forfeiting an opportunity to gauge the effectiveness of their instruction in reducing acceptance of psychological misconceptions as well as pseudoscientific and poorly supported practices. Accordingly, we discuss how we developed measures for assessing endorsement of unfounded knowledge claims related to psychology so that instructors can conduct learning outcome assessment studies of their students' unfounded beliefs. Then, we review findings from our research program using these measures for learning outcomes assessment, and in relation to critical thinking and dual-process models of cognition, extending our earlier efforts to explain why many students endorse such claims. Finally, we briefly outline the implications of findings for reducing endorsement of unsubstantiated claims among psychology students. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)},
author = {Bensley, D. Alan and Lilienfeld, Scott O.},
doi = {10.1037/stl0000218},
issn = {2332-2101},
journal = {Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Psychology},
title = {{Assessing belief in unsubstantiated claims.}},
year = {2020}
}
@article{Wu2021,
abstract = {It has been one year since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. The good news is that vaccines developed by several manufacturers are being actively distributed worldwide. However, as more and more vaccines become available to the public, various concerns related to vaccines become the primary barriers that may hinder the public from getting vaccinated. Considering the complexities of these concerns and their potential hazards, this study is aimed at offering a clear understanding about different population groups' underlying concerns when they talk about COVID-19 vaccines—particularly those active on Reddit. The goal is achieved by applying LDA and LIWC to characterize the pertaining discourse with insights generated through a combination of quantitative and qualitative comparisons. Findings include the following: (1) during the pandemic, the proportion of Reddit comments predominated by conspiracy theories outweighed that of any other topics; (2) each subreddit has its own user bases, so information posted in one subreddit may not reach that from other subreddits; and (3) since users' concerns vary across time and subreddits, communication strategies must be adjusted according to specific needs. The results of this study manifest challenges as well as opportunities in the process of designing effective communication and immunization programs.},
archivePrefix = {arXiv},
arxivId = {2101.06321},
author = {Wu, Wei and Lyu, Hanjia and Luo, Jiebo},
doi = {10.34133/2021/9837856},
eprint = {2101.06321},
journal = {Health Data Science},
title = {{Characterizing Discourse about COVID-19 Vaccines: A Reddit Version of the Pandemic Story}},
year = {2021}
}
@misc{Xantus2021,
abstract = {There is currently no curative drug therapy for COVID-19. The spread of the virus seems relentless despite the unprecedented epidemiological measures. Prevention remains the only feasible option to stop the pandemic; without population-level vaccination, we are unlikely to regain the quality of social life and the unrestricted economy/commerce we enjoyed before. Anti-vaxxers and conspiracy theorists are seemingly oblivious to the detrimental effect of COVID-19 both at an individual and societal level. These groups have (and probably will) continue to attempt to undermine efforts to eradicate the virus despite the fact that the major reduction in morbidity/and mortality of infectious diseases of the past century was achieved through the development of vaccines and improved hygiene. Conspiracy theories are directly associated with reduced vaccine uptake and unfortunately neither anti-vaxxers nor vaccine hesitants cannot be persuaded (debunked) with logical arguments; hence, prescribers must not only be aware of the truth underlying the dense web of misinformation but must fully understand the psychological aspects as well to be able to efficiently counsel about the potential benefits and harms. Such knowledge is pivotal to help the lay public to make informed decisions about SARS CoV-2 in general and vaccination in particular; as the COVID-19 situation can probably be best controlled with mass inoculation and novel immune therapies. The lessons learnt regarding the importance of efficient communication and the adherence to the proven epidemiological measures hopefully would be leaving us better prepared for the future if challenged by novel communicable diseases of pandemic potential.},
author = {Xantus, Gabor Zoltan and Burke, Derek and Kanizsai, Peter},
booktitle = {Postgraduate Medical Journal},
doi = {10.1136/postgradmedj-2021-139835},
issn = {14690756},
keywords = {COVID-19,epidemiology,therapeutics},
pmid = {33837130},
title = {{How to best handle vaccine decliners: Scientific facts and psychological approach}},
year = {2021}
}
@article{Zemlyanskiy2021,
author = {Zemlyanskiy, Alexander V.},
doi = {10.31862/1819-463x-2021-3-51-61},
issn = {1819-463X},
journal = {Science and School},
title = {{“INFODEMIC” CASE STUDY: CONSPIRACY THEORIES AROUND COVID-19 - SPREADING AND DEBUNKING IN THE MEDIA}},
year = {2021}
}
@article{Botwe2021,
abstract = {Introduction: Vaccination is a key global strategy to mitigate the clinical impact of the COVID-19 virus. As part of local efforts to manage the outbreak, the government of Ghana announced its intention to vaccinate its population starting with essential and high-risk workers including radiographers. However, there were reports of hesitance to receiving the vaccine among the radiography workforce. This study was undertaken prior to the intended vaccination exercise to assess the willingness and concerns of radiographers to undergo the COVID-19 vaccination and to suggest recommendations to improve the vaccine uptake. Methods: An ethically-approved online survey strategy was employed for this cross-sectional study conducted between 24th–28th February 2021. The survey employed quantitative questions and open text response options. Quantitative and open text responses were analysed using statistical and thematic analyses, respectively. Results: There were 108 responses (response rate of 46.3%). The majority (n = 64, 59.3%) were willing to have the vaccine, however, some (n = 44, 40.7%) were not. The main reason behind their willingness to have the vaccine was its ability to reduce the spread of infections and lower mortality (n = 35, 54.7%). However, doubts about the vaccine's efficacy and side effects (n = 26, 56.8%), conspiracy theory concerns about its effects on the Ghanaian race (n = 4, 9.1%), and fertility concerns (n = 2, 4.5%) were some reasons for their hesitance to receive the vaccine. The open text commentary further revealed that the vaccine was thought of as a lifesaving medication, however, clinical safety concerns, lack of education/information and religious beliefs were affecting peoples' willingness to be vaccinated. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate the need for an urgent public health educational intervention to address the COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy concerns raised by radiographers to help increase the vaccine uptake. Implication for practice: The study provides pertinent information to improve COVID-19 vaccine uptake among radiographers to limit the spread of infections.},
author = {Botwe, B. O. and Antwi, W. K. and Adusei, J. A. and Mayeden, R. N. and Akudjedu, T. N. and Sule, S. D.},
doi = {10.1016/j.radi.2021.09.015},
issn = {15322831},
journal = {Radiography},
keywords = {COVID-19,Ghana,Radiographer,Survey,Vaccine hesitancy},
title = {{COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy concerns: Findings from a Ghana clinical radiography workforce survey}},
year = {2021}
}
@article{Avendano2021,
abstract = {Notwithstanding long-simmering controversies around the construct, several studies have gathered consistent evidence of authoritarian attitudes among left-wing voters and activists. Recently, Costello et al. (Clarifying the structure and nature of left-wing authoritarianism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2021) validated, in the English-speaking context, a three-factor scale to measure left-wing authoritarianism, as well as two shortened versions of the same scale (Costello & Patrick, Development and initial validation of two brief measures of left-wing authoritarianism: A machine learning approach, 2021; composed of 39, 25 and 13 items, respectively). In this article, we used three samples (total N = 2586) to validate the structural and construct validity of a Spanish adaptation of these three versions. The resulting scales exhibited an analogous three-factor structure, adequate internal consistency, and convergent and discriminant validity regarding sex, religion, moral exporting, conspiracy theories, social and economic conservatism, and right-wing authoritarianism.},
author = {Avenda{\~{n}}o, Diego and Fasce, Angelo and Costello, Thomas and Adri{\'{a}}n-Ventura, Jes{\'{u}}s},
doi = {10.1080/00223891.2021.1981345},
issn = {00223891},
journal = {Journal of Personality Assessment},
title = {{Spanish Adaptation of the Left-Wing Authoritarianism Index}},
year = {2021}
}
@article{Odintsova2021,
abstract = {COVID-19 is a crisis that has radically changed the world, as illustrated by the social, psychological, and economic consequences of the spread of infection. This pandemic is framed by endless streams of misinformation and fake news, which have their own consequences, and spread even more distorted and misleading information. Significant part of this misinformation concerns conspiracy theories of all kinds, as well as drugs and treatments that, although approved for other indications, may have potential efficacy in preventing or for treating COVID-19. The purpose of this article is to examine the phenomenon of infodemic as a large-scale flow of misinforming content regarding thematic aspects related to the spread of COVID-19 coronavirus infection.},
author = {Odintsova, O. V. and Moreeva, E. V.},
doi = {10.32687/0869-866X-2021-29-s1-689-693},
issn = {0869866X},
journal = {Problemy sotsial'noi gigieny, zdravookhraneniia i istorii meditsiny},
keywords = {COVID-19,infodemic,information,misinformation,social networks},
pmid = {34327946},
title = {{PROBLEMS OF COMMUNICATION MANAGEMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF THE SPREAD OF THE COVID-19 INFODEMIA}},
year = {2021}
}
@article{Bunina2021,
abstract = {The article examines the evolution of right-wing radicalism and extremism in the United States during the period from 2015 to January 2021 and their destructive impact on elections and power transit. The main drivers of radicalization are explored, with special attention paid to the role of conspiracy theories, in particular the QAnon phenomenon. The article analyzes how the Internet in general and social networks in particular created echo chambers and accelerated the spread of radical ideas. Distinctions are made between the more traditional forms of radicalism and the new generation of radicals (that flourished under the Donald Trump administration). Righ-wing radicalism of the new generation is dominated by cultural libertarianism, comprised of “alt-right” and “alt-light” movements, antagonistic towards left-wing radicalism. While the Trump administration underplayed the rise in right-wing extremism, it considerably overstated the threat of left-wing radicalism. Special attention is paid to thе role of the media, including its growing lack of neutrality and emergence of the ecosphere for conservative viewers where fakes and conspiracy mindsets thrive. Anti-democratic behavior of the president and the Republican Party are explored, including deliberate misleading of voters and denial of the presidential election results. The storming of the Capitol on January 6, 2021 is interpreted as a natural progression of the above-mentioned trends. In conclusion, the forecast of future trends is made. These trends include persistence of populist sentiments, the increasing role of the alt-right, persistence of street violence, and the growing acceptance of anti-democratic behavior. All of this presents a serious challenge not only for the Republican Party, but also for the U.S. political institutions in general.},
author = {Bunina, A.},
doi = {10.20542/2307-1494-2021-1-60-88},
issn = {23071494},
journal = {Pathways to Peace and Security},
title = {{The evolution of right-wing radicalism in the United States during the Trump era}},
year = {2021}
}
@article{,
abstract = {Objective: To demonstrate the importance of Fact-Checking tools in combating health fake news in the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Quantitative descriptive study, conducted during the Sars-Cov-2 pandemic. Fake news were accounted and identified through the website chequeado.com, registered in the Ag{\^{e}}ncia Lupo and Aos Fatos checking platforms, belonging to the International Fact-Checking Network, an international understanding with recognized news verification methodologies. The registered news originated from the social media/networks Facebook, Whatsapp, Instagram, Twitter, and websites. They were later classified according to content in Conspiracy Theory, Prevention/Treatment/Cure, Authorities/Agency Measures, Situation of a city, state and country, Causes, Symptoms, Public Figure and False Context. Results: 529 fake news about coronavirus were obtained, of these 306 were from the Ag{\^{e}}ncia Lupo platform, and 223 from the Aos Fatos platform. A total of 99 (18.72%) fake news were about Conspiracy Theory 99 (18.72%) Authorities/Agency Measures and 98 (18.53%) False Context. As for the origin of fake news 382 (72.21%) were from Facebook and 67 (12.66%) from Whatsapp. Conclusion: The Fact-Checking tools in combating misinformation on social networks are important because they deny false news, unlikely allegations, and no justification related to the Covid-19 pandemic. These check sites alert social networks, policymakers, and the public to create measures that educate and protect the integrity and health of individuals and prevent them from falling victim to misinformation.},
doi = {10.28933/ijcn-2021-05-2005},
journal = {International Journal of Communications and Networks},
title = {{FACT-CHECKING: AN IMPORTANT TOOL TO COMBAT FAKE NEWS ON HEALTH IN COVID-19 PANDEMIC}},
year = {2021}
}
@article{Vowles2021,
abstract = {The final years of the 2010s marked an upturn in coverage on climate change. In Sweden, legacy media wrote more on the issue than ever before, especially in connection to the drought and wildfires in the summer of 2018 and the Fridays for Future movement started by Greta Thunberg. Reporting on climate change also reached unprecedented levels in the growingly influential far-right media ecosystem; from being a topic discussed hardly at all, it became a prominent issue. In this study, we use a toolkit from critical discourse analysis (CDA) to research how three Swedish far-right digital media sites reported on climate during the years 2018–2019. We show how the use of conspiracy theories, anti-establishment rhetoric, and nationalistic arguments created an antagonistic reaction to increased demands for action on climate change. By putting climate in ironic quotation marks, a discourse was created where it was taken for granted that climate change was a hoax.},
author = {Vowles, Kjell and Hultman, Martin},
doi = {10.2478/njms-2021-0005},
journal = {Nordic Journal of Media Studies},
title = {{Scare-quoting climate: The rapid rise of climate denial in the Swedish far-right media ecosystem}},
year = {2021}
}
@article{Binub2021,
abstract = {Background: Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Early success brought widespread acceptance and mass vaccination campaigns have greatly reduced the incidence of many diseases in numerous geographic regions.
Objectives: To study the perspective of health professionals regard to barriers and solution for vaccination program in a district of South Kerala.
Materials and Methods: A qualitative study design was done using free listing technique for both barriers and solutions. The data was entered into notepad and was transferred to Visual Anthropac software trial version. The software helped to generate ten important free lists of barriers and solutions with percentage, rank and Smith S value.
Results: The present study had discussed regarding trust of western countries promoting vaccination and conspiracy theories related to them. The work of antivaccine lobby globally was debated. The controversy of MMR Autism and political will of different countries were deliberated. The role of media especially impact social media and internet had paved pathway for swift spread of contents.
Conclusion: Major interventions should be planned systematically by the government to address barriers for immunization. Strengthening Information education and communication (IEC) over digital media using appropriate technology should be engrossed for sustaining vaccine coverage.},
author = {Binub, Kanniyan and Govindaraj, . and Haveri, Sheela P.},
doi = {10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i1131244},
issn = {2454-8405},
journal = {Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International},
title = {{Vaccine Resistance-Vantage Point from Health Professionals of South India}},
year = {2021}
}
@article{Rovinskaya2021,
abstract = {The article investigates the role of new digital technologies during a crisis period on the example of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Considering the methods used by different states to prevent the spread of the virus and its consequences, the author analyzes the advantages of the impelled rapid digitalization, scrutinizes its negative aspects, and discusses perspectives. Although the digital transformation had already been taking place before the pandemic actually started (2019), the current crisis facilitates the unprecedented digitalization breakthrough in all life spheres, which will have delayed consequences. The short-run effects are already obvious: deepening of virtual communication; advancement of electronic document flow systems and online-services (including E-Government, public health service, etc.); virtualization of education, culture, sports, leisure activities; transformation of labour market towards distance employment, an outburst of electronic commerce and services, robot automation in economy; virtualization of political life (online-meetings, online-debates, online-summits, etc.), and, moreover, a transfer of power struggle and geopolitical struggle itself to digital platforms. Greater convenience and effectiveness are the most vivid advantages of digital technologies development, which plays the key role in crisis periods. Better access of disabled persons and people living in geographically remote places to medical aid, education, cultural objects, etc. also belongs to important achievements of the rapid digitalization. At the same time, there are significant negative aspects of this process, both general and specific. The violation of democratic rights and freedoms (primarily, of personal data security and individual privacy) is unavoidable in the light of the necessary “digital control” from the state to contain the spread of infection. Private IT companies participating in the process of the virus spread control due to their products (mobile applications, Internet platforms, etc.) also benefit from access to personal data. Whereas this issue is not central in authoritarian regimes like China, it becomes very challenging for democratic societies of the West. The digitalization of services gives wide room for irregularities and fraud in general. A growing “digital exclusion” is another concern: the greater dependency on technical means excludes certain parts of the population unable to use them for different reasons. An increasing individualization and solitude amid the lacking real-life communication gives rise to complicated psychological issues and mental disorders. Among specific negative side-effects of digitalization there are obstacles in personal electronic verification, worsening in the quality of remote medical assistance and online-education, unemployment growth and smashup of offline-businesses in economy, and some other. The most complicated question of the current crisis and the next “post-COVID” period is how serious the above-mentioned negative consequences of the rapid digitalization will be, to what extent they may devaluate its advantages, what sacrifice will be made by humanity to pay for comfort and effectiveness.},
author = {Rovinskaya, Tatiana L.},
doi = {10.20542/0131-2227-2021-65-6-95-106},
issn = {01312227},
journal = {World Economy and International Relations},
keywords = {COVID-19,Conspiracy theory,Digital control,Digitalization,E-Government,Government services,Information technologies,Lockdown,Pandemic,Virtualization},
title = {{The role of new digital technologies in a time of crisis (Pandemic 2019–2021)}},
year = {2021}
}
@misc{Xia2021,
abstract = {Disinformation research surged in the wake of the 2016 U.S. Presidential Election of Donald J. Trump. This essay reviews three book-length contributions published in 2020 and 2021. In doing so, I try to identify key developments in the field of disinformation research, and to contemplate next steps that may be of specific interest to readers of this journal. First, researchers are increasingly moving beyond a narrow obsession with technology in explaining and addressing disinformation. Second, not all authors reviewed here are convinced of the efficacy of media literacy education and fact-checking. Finally, considering limitations of the books reviewed here, I highlight the need for studies on marginalized communities and the Global South, as well as the potential of an embodied approach that may benefit a number of current perspectives on disinformation.},
author = {Xia, Yiping},
booktitle = {Media, Culture and Society},
doi = {10.1177/01634437211040684},
issn = {14603675},
keywords = {Donald Trump,audience research,conspiracy theory,digital democracy,disinformation,misinformation,social media,technology},
title = {{Disinformation after Trump}},
year = {2021}
}
@book{Kuzma2021,
abstract = {The spread of coronavirus and anti-vaccine conspiracies online hindered public health responses to the pandemic. We examined the content of external articles shared on Twitter from February to June 2020 to understand how conspiracy theories and fake news competed with legitimate sources of information. Examining external content--articles, rather than social media posts--is a novel methodology that allows for non-social media specific analysis of misinformation, tracking of changing narratives over time, and determining which types of resources (government, news, scientific, or dubious) dominate the pandemic vaccine conversation. We find that distinct narratives emerge, those narratives change over time, and lack of government and scientific messaging on coronavirus created an information vacuum filled by both traditional news and conspiracy theories.},
archivePrefix = {arXiv},
arxivId = {2107.09183},
author = {Kuzma, Richard and Cruickshank, Iain J. and Carley, Kathleen M.},
booktitle = {Proceedings of International Conference on Information Technology for Social Good (GoodIT 2021)},
eprint = {2107.09183},
keywords = {2021,acm reference format,and kathleen m,carley,cross-platform,cross-platform, misinformation, disinformation, tw,cruickshank,disinformation,iain j,misinformation,public health messaging,richard kuzma,twitter},
title = {{Analysis of External Content in the Vaccination Discussion on Twitter}},
year = {2021}
}
@article{Miklosvolgyi2021,
abstract = {Similarly to other ethnofuturistic movements (e.g. Afrofuturism, Blaccelerationism, Sinofuturism, Gulf-Futurism, Baltic Ethnofuturism) Hungarofuturism is an experiment in identity-poetical imagination, based on a radically ironic exaggeration of minority identity. As opposed to notions of Hungarianness currently hegemonic in Hungary, this is an alternative concept of what it means to be Hungarian, the discovery of a post-Hungarianism. The Hungarofuturist reprogramming of the hegemonic “nation-machine” does not create organic knowledge and narratives, but anachronisms, phantom-like events in which the incompatibility of the various elements hybridizes history and the cosmos until the very moment of “overidentification” (Slavoj {\v{Z}}i{\v{z}}ek). One of the primary examples of Hungarofuturist “overidentification” is best demonstrated in the example of hijacking and appropriating the most common pseudo-myth of the esoteric subcultures of the Hungarian far-right: Hungarians—as the so-called “chosen ones”—originating from outer space, namely from the Sirius star system. One of the primary aims of this article is to decipher, hijack, and deweaponize the core of this conspiracy theory, thus demonstrating how Hungarofuturist's ways of (counter-) narrative-making are capable of deconstructing the phantoms of 1 This essay is partially based on our following previous texts: “Hungarofuturist Manifesto”, in Technologie und das Unheimliche, 2017; “Terraforming PostHungarianness”, WUK, 2020; “Parapolitik der Au{\ss}erirdischen Interessen”, Kunst und Kirche, 2021. ethnographic authenticity promoted not only by FIDESZ, but by contemporary nationalist political agendas all over the world.},
author = {Mikl{\'{o}}sv{\"{o}}lgyi, Zsolt and Nemes, M{\'{a}}ri{\'{o}} Z.},
doi = {10.1386/maska_00064_1},
issn = {1318-0509},
journal = {Maska},
title = {{“Who should we hate today?”: Notes from an illiberal laboratory}},
year = {2021}
}
@article{Al-Wutayd2021,
abstract = {Background: The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues with resurgent second and third waves worldwide. Vaccination is one of several measures that are needed to end this pervasive threat. Pakistan, however, has a relatively low rate of routine vaccine acceptance. Our study aimed to determine the proportion and predictors of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy (VH) among adults in Pakistan. Methods: An online cross-sectional study was conducted from December 27, 2020 to March 6, 2021. Non-probability sampling was applied to recruit study participants through social media platforms (ie, Facebook and Twitter) and through free messaging services (WhatsApp). Stata 16 was used to generate descriptive statistics and logistic regression models for identifying predictive variables of vaccine hesitancy. A p-value of <0.05 was considered strong evidence against the null hypothesis. Results: Out of 1014 participants, 35.8% (n=363) were hesitant about receiving the COVID-19 vaccine. Reasons for VH included concerns about side effects (42.4%), belief in conspiracy theories (20.1%), perceived inefficacy of the vaccine (13.2%), and perceived protection through precautionary measures (12.6%). Urban residency (AOR 2.34, 95% CI 1.54–3.57), reservations about vaccine safety (AOR 3.29, 95% CI 1.68–6.44), uncertainty about vaccine efficacy (AOR 2.70, 95% CI 1.50–4.86), failure of the vaccine to reduce hospitalization and death (AOR 6.36, 95% CI 4.01– 10.22), and unfelt need for vaccination awareness among public (AOR 2.02, 95% CI 1.28–3.14) were associated with higher rates of VH. At least one chronic disease (AOR 0.60, 95% CI 0.39– 0.92), knowing someone infected with COVID-19 (AOR 0.56, 95% CI 0.39–0.81), and trusting information from the ministry of health (AOR 0.64, 95% CI 0.41–0.99) and physicians (AOR 0.27, 95% CI 0.13–0.53) were found to be associated with lower rates of COVID-19 VH. Conclusion: More than one third of survey participants were VH. COVID-19 vaccine uptake in Pakistan can be improved through targeted health education strategies and planned interventions that address the barriers identified in the present study.}, author = {Al-Wutayd, Osama and Khalil, Rehana and Rajar, Allah Bachayo}, doi = {10.2147/JMDH.S325529}, issn = {11782390}, journal = {Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare}, keywords = {COVID-19,Hesitancy,Pakistan,Predictors,Vaccine}, title = {{Sociodemographic and behavioral predictors of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in Pakistan}}, year = {2021} } @article{Stemmler2021, abstract = {Do radicalized Muslim prisoners differ from non-radicalized Muslim prisoners with regard to Kruglanski's (2004) quest for significance (QFS), need for (cognitive) closure (NFC), and their frame alignment regarding ideological and religious issues? To answer this research question N = 26 male inmates from Bavarian prisons were interviewed. The radicalized prisoners or extremists (n = 13) had been identified as Salafi or Jihadi adherents by the Bavarian Office for the Protection of the Constitution (Bayerischer Verfassungsschutz) and therefore had a security note. The comparison group were non-radicalized Muslim inmates (n = 13); the vast majority had a migration background. The audio files of the interviews were transcribed and Mayring's (2010) qualitative content analysis was applied. The obtained interview material was analyzed twice (each time with a different focus) for psychological differences and characteristics between the two groups of Muslim prisoners. In the first analysis, the interviews were investigated with regard to conspiracy theories, dualistic conception of the world, political sensitivity, collective and individual victimization and religious rigidity. Extremists exhibited a stronger frame alignment with respect to general conspiracy theories, dualistic conception of the world, collective victimization, and political sensitivity. Results also substantiate the idea that extremists exhibit more rigid religious behaviors than non-extremist Muslim prisoners. Contrary to our expectations, the two groups did not differ in various biographical features, for example whether they grew up in a family that actively practiced their religion. In the second analysis, we found that although the overall pattern regarding QFS turned out as expected, the radicalized inmates did not achieve higher values than their non-radicalized counterparts. However, we obtained substantial differences for subcategories of QFS. The extremist prisoners reported more norm violations as a trigger for QFS and more opportunities for gaining significance than non-extremists. This was also true for non-legitimate as well as non-criminal opportunities to gain significance. There was a substantial difference between extremists and non-extremists regarding the overall NFC characteristics. Radicalized prisoners tend to avoid ambiguous situations or uncertainty, they prefer clear, structured processes and firm beliefs. The results suggest that it is possible to differentiate non-radicalized from radicalized Muslims as they showed less quest for significance, less need for closure, less political sensitivity and a less rigorous view on religion.}, author = {Stemmler, Mark and Endres, Johann and King, Sonja and Ritter, Bianca and Becker, Kristina}, doi = {10.1515/mks-2021-0131}, issn = {00269301}, journal = {Monatsschrift fur Kriminologie und Strafrechtsreform}, keywords = {Islamism,Salafism,frame alignment,need for cognitive closure,quest for significance,radicalized Muslims}, title = {{Psychological Differences between Radicalized and non-Radicalized Muslim Prisoners: A Qualitative Analysis of their Frame Alignment}}, year = {2021} } @incollection{, abstract = {The universal application of such embodied computing technologies as implantables with uberveillant consequences can no longer be dismissed as "conspiracy theory", especially as one inch toward a society whereby end users or individuals are becoming the final security and privacy frontier, or the "last mile" in the internet of things and people (IoTaP). The repercussions of these technological developments, such as security, privacy, and human rights challenges, have yet to be fully appreciated. This chapter provides historical context illustrating the advent and rise of salient embodied computing technologies and urges individuals to question and challenge existing assertions regarding the wider benefits of such converging technologies, especially as humans become key nodes in a global network. While the researchers agree that there are many potential health, entrepreneurial, security, and other gains to be had, caution should be exercised. In addition, responsible and discerning engineering is encouraged. Failure to address such issues is likely to result in the realization of an uberveillance society that will be plagued with misinformation, misinterpretation of data, and the manipulation of information. This could prove to be one of the greatest ironies of our information age. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)}, booktitle = {Embodied Computing}, doi = {10.7551/mitpress/11564.003.0007}, title = {{{\"{U}}berveillance and the Rise of Last-Mile Implantables: Past, Present, and Future}}, year = {2020} } @misc{Vitolins2021, abstract = {Life with a disease. Social experience and transformation processes in crisis societies in Latvian and European history was part of the 79th Scientific Conference of the University of Latvia. It was held online on 24 February 2021. The conference gathered historians and geographers from the University of Latvia and Visiting Professor Yuri Slezkine from the University of California, Berkeley, who tackled the consequences of plague and other epidemics in medical, political, cultural, and military contexts. The first part of the conference investigated epidemics in Ancient Egypt (Valdis Segliņ{\v{s}}), Ancient East, Mesopotamia and Rome (Harijs Tumans), medieval Livonia (Andris Levāns), and the 16th-17th century German lands (Valda Kļava). All these papers reflected transformations in perception, for example, in Mesopotamia disease was seen as a punishment inflicted on the humans by the gods, but in the 16th century Germany the plague was perceived as a damage of the social body. These changes reflect a change of attitude from mythical to scientific, and a development of social responsibility. The second part of the conference investigated the social experience of disease with the focus on the territory of Latvia and the Soviet Union in the 17th-20th centuries, covering the following topics: diseases in the territory of the modern-day Vidzeme region in the 17th-18th centuries (Gvido Straube), political dimensions of medical care during the Latvian War of Independence (Ēriks Jēkabsons), the mental health of Soviet officials (Yuri Slezkine), and the metaphorical framing of disease in the Latvian historical novel Footprints (1980) (Mārtiņ{\v{s}} Mintaurs). These papers addressed the impact of diseases on historical demography, social history of war, and the use of disease as a metaphor to criticize society or political institutions. All presentations have also given impulses for further research, the topics of which could be divided into three groups. Firstly, public attitude towards precautions against disease, for example quarantine and lockdown; secondly, rumours and conspiracy theories about the origins of diseases; and thirdly, the impact of diseases on spatial history, the meaning and role of human agency in the development of landscape and its correlation with diseases. Also, changes in the perception of time and distance resulting from prolonged restrictions of movement is a potential topic of research. It is important to underline the social function of the conference. It shows that historically societies always have had to combat diseases, their effects on economics, social mobility and everyday life. Hopefully, historical insights like the one provided by the described conference will help us feel less scared and less confused in our current situation.}, author = {Vītoliņ{\v{s}}, Rūdolfs R.}, booktitle = {Journal of the Institute of Latvian History}, doi = {10.22364/lviz.113.07}, issn = {25928791}, title = {{“To flee quickly and return slowly”: Historical experience in cohabitation with a disease. Perspectives of scholarly research into a change of perception}}, year = {2021} } @article{Kacimi2021, abstract = {Background The Algerian COVID-19 vaccination campaign, which started by the end of January 2021, is marked by a slowly ascending curve despite the deployed resources. To tackle the issue, we assessed the levels and explored determinants of engagement towards the COVID-19 vaccine among the Algerian population.Methods A nationwide, online-based cross-sectional study was conducted between March 27 and April 30, 2021. A two-stage stratified snowball sampling method was used to include an equivalent number of participants from the four cardinal regions of the country. A vaccine engagement scale was developed, defining vaccine engagement as a multidimensional parameter (5 items) that combined self-stated acceptance and willingness with perceived safety and efficacy of the vaccine. An Engagement score was calculated and the median was used to define engagement versus nonengagement. Sociodemographic and clinical data, perceptions about COVID-19 and levels of adherence to preventive measures were analyzed as predictors for nonengagement.Results We included 1,019 participants, 54% were female and 64% were aged 18-29 years. Overall, there were low rates of self-declared acceptance (26%) and willingness (21%) to take the vaccine, as well as low levels of agreement regarding vaccine safety (21%) and efficacy (30%). Thus, vaccine engagement rate was estimated at 33.5%, and ranged between 29.6-38.5% depending on the region (p>0.05). Nonengagement was independently associated with female gender (OR=2.31, p<0.001), low adherence level to preventive measures (OR=6.93p<0.001), private sector jobs (OR=0.53, p=0.038), perceived COVID-19 severity (OR=0.66, p=0.014), and fear from contracting the disease (OR=0.56, p=0.018). Concern about vaccine side effects (72.0%) and exigence for more efficacy and safety studies (48.3%) were the most commonly reported barrier and enabler for vaccine acceptance respectively; whereas beliefs in the conspiracy theory were reported by 23.4%.Conclusions The very low rates of vaccine engagement among the Algerian population probably explain the slow ascension of the vaccination curve in the country. Vaccine awareness campaigns should be implemented to address the multiple misconceptions and enhance the levels of knowledge and perception both about the disease and the vaccine, by prioritizing target populations and engaging both healthcare workers and the general population.Competing Interest StatementThe authors have declared no competing interest.Funding StatementThe authors received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.Author DeclarationsI confirm all relevant ethical guidelines have been followed, and any necessary IRB and/or ethics committee approvals have been obtained.YesThe details of the IRB/oversight body that provided approval or exemption for the research described are given below:The institutional review board of the University of TlemcenAll necessary patient/participant consent has been obtained and the appropriate institutional forms have been archived.YesI understand that all clinical trials and any other prospective interventional studies must be registered with an ICMJE-approved registry, such as ClinicalTrials.gov. I confirm that any such study reported in the manuscript has been registered and the trial registration ID is provided (note: if posting a prospective study registered retrospectively, please provide a statement in the trial ID field explaining why the study was not registered in advance).YesI have followed all appropriate research reporting guidelines and uploaded the relevant EQUATOR Network research reporting checklist(s) and other pertinent material as supplementary files, if applicable.YesThe data can be shared upon request from the corresponding author}, author = {Kacimi, Salah Eddine Oussama and Klouche-Djedid, Selma Nihel and Riffi, Omar and Belaouni, Hadj Ahmed and Yasmin, Farah and Taouza, Fatma Asma and Belakhdar, Yasmine and Fellah, Saliha Chiboub and Benmelouka, Amira Yasmine and Ahmed, Shoaib and Aloulou, Mohammad and Bendelhoum, Abdellah and Merzouk, Hafida and Ghozy, Sherief and Essar, Mohammad Yasir and Haireche, Mohamed Amine}, journal = {medRxiv}, title = {{Determinants of SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Engagement in Algeria: A Population-based Study with Systematic Review of Studies from Arab Countries of the MENA Region}}, year = {2021} } @article{Williams2021, abstract = {OBJECTIVE To explore public attitudes to COVID-19 vaccines in the UK, focused on intentions and decisions around taking vaccines, views on ‘vaccine passports', and experiences and perspectives on post-vaccination behavior.DESIGN Qualitative study consisting of 6 online focus groups conducted between 15th March – 22nd April 2021.SETTING Online video conferencingPARTICIPANTS 29 adult UK-based participantsRESULTS Three main groups regarding participants' decision or intention to receive a COVID-19 vaccine were identified: (1) Accepters, (2) Delayers and (3) Refusers. Two reasons for vaccine delay were identified: delay due to a perceived need more information and delay until vaccine was “required” in the future. Three main facilitators (Vaccination as a social norm; Vaccination as a necessity; Trust in science) and six barriers (Preference for “natural immunity”; Concerns over possible side effects; Distrust in government; Perceived lack of information; Conspiracy theories; “Covid echo chambers”) to vaccine uptake were identified. For some delayers, vaccine passports were perceived to be a reason why they would get vaccinated in the future. However, vaccine passports were controversial, and were framed in three main ways: as “a necessary evil”; as “Orwellian”; and as a “human rights problem”. Participants generally felt that receiving a vaccine was not changing the extent to which people were adhering to COVID-19 measures.CONCLUSIONS Overall, positive sentiment toward vaccines was high. However, there remains a number of potential barriers which might be leading to vaccine delay in some. ‘Vaccine delay' might be a more useful and precise construct than vaccine hesitancy in explaining why some may initially ignore or be uncertain about vaccination invitations. Vaccine passports may increase or ‘nudge' uptake in some delayers but remain controversial. Earlier concerns that vaccination might reduce adherence to social distancing measures are not borne out in our data, with most people reporting ongoing adherence and caution.Competing Interest StatementSW and KA are currently funded by and collaborating with Public Health Wales on a separate study. This study was funded by grants from the University of Manchester and Swansea University. No funders or external bodies had any role in the design or implementation of the present study and paper. The authors declare no other conflict of interest.Funding StatementThis research was supported by the Manchester Centre for Health Psychology based at the University of Manchester (GBP 2000) and Swansea University's 'Greatest Need Fund' (GBP 3000).Author DeclarationsI confirm all relevant ethical guidelines have been followed, and any necessary IRB and/or ethics committee approvals have been obtained.YesThe details of the IRB/oversight body that provided approval or exemption for the research described are given below:Ethical approval was received by Swansea University's School of Management Research Ethics Committee and College of Human and Health Sciences.All necessary patient/participant consent has been obtained and the appropriate institutional forms have been archived.YesI understand that all clinical trials and any other prospective interventional studies must be registered with an ICMJE-approved registry, such as ClinicalTrials.gov. I confirm that any such study reported in the manuscript has been registered and the trial registration ID is provided (note: if posting a prospective study registered retrospectively, please provide a statement in the trial ID field explaining why the study was not registered in advance).YesI have followed all appropriate research reporting guidelines and uploaded the relevant EQUATOR Network research reporting checklist(s) and other pertinent material as supplementary files, if applicable.YesEthical restrictions related to participant confidentiality prohibit the authors from making the data set publicly available. During the consent process, participants were explicitly guaranteed that the data would only be seen my members of the study team. For any discussions about the data set please contact the corresponding author, Simon Williams (s.n.williams{at}swansea.ac.uk).}, author = {Williams, Simon N and Dienes, Kimberly}, journal = {medRxiv}, title = {{Public attitudes to COVID-19 vaccines: A qualitative study}}, year = {2021} } @article{NCT047064032021, abstract = {The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) has rapidly instigated a global pandemic. As of this writing, there are approximately 65 million documented cases of infection worldwide, and over 1.5 million deaths. In the United States (US), coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) has disrupted the economy, overwhelmed healthcare system, led to widespread school cancellations, and caused more than 274,000 deaths since March 2020. A vaccine against COVID‐19 is widely viewed as the key to controlling the pandemic and enabling a return to "normal" life. Vaccine development is proceeding at an unprecedented pace with 10 vaccines currently in phase 3 trials. Experts have projected that a safe and effective vaccine may be available by mid‐2021. At the same time, a growing body of evidence indicates that a significant proportion of adults in the U.S. may not accept vaccination against COVID‐19. Even more alarming, COVID‐19 vaccine hesitancy (refusal or reluctance to accept a vaccine) appears to be increasing as the vaccine approval process becomes increasingly politicized. Just as efforts to develop vaccine production and delivery capacity have been undertaken in advance of having a proven effective vaccine, parallel efforts are needed to identify effective messages and communication strategies to overcome COVID‐19 vaccine hesitancy. The study team recently surveyed a nationally representative sample of approximately 1,000 adults in the United States and found that only 57% intended to be vaccinated when a coronavirus vaccine becomes available. This percentage was even lower among people who identified as Black or Hispanic (39% and 43% respectively), those with a high school education or less (46%), and those in the lowest income groups (49% of those reporting a household income of $30,000 or less, compared to 72% of those reporting a household income of $100,000 or more). The investigators asked those who indicated they would not or might not get vaccinated for their reasons and found that some individuals may be willing to be vaccinated if provided specific information about the vaccine such as side effects and effectiveness. Others expressed generalized skepticism, fear, and distrust of vaccines, with some even referring to anti‐vaccine conspiracy theories. These findings are consistent with an extensive body of research documenting that people often do not behave rationally and highlight the urgent need to proactively develop and test interventions to maximize vaccination rates when a coronavirus vaccine becomes available. To address this need, in the present study, the investigators aim to create and test targeted messages to address the concerns of subgroups of people at risk for not being vaccinated, with the ultimate goal of maximizing vaccine uptake when a vaccine for COVID‐19 becomes available. The investigators will accomplish this by working with an existing online panel of volunteers, which will allow efficient, focused data gathering. Results of the survey will provide a nuanced, current description of how vulnerable adults perceive the coronavirus and available vaccines, which will be used as the basis for developing messages and communication strategies. Participants will be randomized to receive one of five different versions of a message from a healthcare provider regarding vaccination. Specific wording and content of these messages will vary systematically in order to address concerns of those at risk for not being vaccinated. This project will ultimately result in a set of tested, evidence‐derived messages about vaccination for COVID‐19. The investigators will make these messages available, together with evidence of how these influence members of vulnerable populations' understanding of vaccination, and disease risk, as well as intent to be vaccinated. The messages will be freely available for use by organizations and providers seeking to improve communication about a coronavirus vaccine.}, author = {NCT04706403}, journal = {https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT04706403}, title = {{Views on COVID-19 and Vaccination}}, year = {2021} } @article{Voznyak2021, abstract = {The relevance of the research topic is due to the widespread impact of the pandemic on human life and the socio-economic development of the territories. The main factor in changing the behavioral patterns of economic entities in a pandemic was quarantine and the need for social distancing as the main preventive measure to combat the spread of the disease. As a result of distancing, there has been a decline in economic activity, disruption of value chains, rising unemployment, mass bankruptcy of enterprises, as well as changes in the way business structures and the behavior of economic entities. The article aims is to identify changes in the behavior of economic entities in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and their impact on the economy. In the process of research, the set of general methods of scientific cognition (system analysis, logical generalization, analogy, comparative analysis) was used, which provided the possibility of realization of the integrity of scientific research. As a result of the study, the main trends in the behavior of economic entities were identified and analyzed. The following tendencies are revealed: digitalization (transition from social to digital interaction in work and educational processes, circles of close people for the preservation of social distance); changing the model of mobility (reducing the use of public transport, reducing attendance at hotels and restaurants, the transition to distance employment and education, reducing tourism and business travel); changing consumer buying habits (development of e-commerce, “conscious” consumption, support for local producers); infodemic (dissemination of misinformation, the anti-vaccination movement, increase in the number of information messages on conspiracy theories); increased attention to one's health, hygiene and healthy lifestyle (wearing masks, using sanitizers, healthy eating); changes in interpersonal behavior (increase in the number of divorces, increase in cases of domestic violence, restriction of personal contacts, increase in gender inequality). The research conducted in the article allows us to state that the tendencies of changing the behavior of economic entities are potential catalysts for changes in the economy as a whole. Therefore, the question of the exit of the majority of economic entities from the crisis lies in the plane of adaptation and reorientation of their life to the new “post-COVID” conditions.}, author = {Voznyak, Halyna and Patytska, Khrystyna and Kloba, Taras}, doi = {10.30525/2661-5169/2021-2-2}, issn = {2661-5169}, journal = {Green, Blue & Digital Economy Journal}, title = {{THE INFLUENCE OF THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC ON CHANGING THE BEHAVIOR OF ECONOMIC ENTITIES}}, year = {2021} } @article{Charlier2021, abstract = {After years of decline, the frequency of suicide is on the rise again in Asia, since the middle of 2020. The COVID-19 pandemic is not unrelated to it, because it generates a situation of chronic stress, loss benchmarks, difficulties in accessing neuro-psychiatric care, critical economic conditions, and widespread malaise.The suicide of several media figures in Japan (mostly movie actors) prompted the government to take action, using some of the economic stimulus money to fund suicide prevention campaigns. It is especially women and young people under 30 who are affected by this “suicide epidemic” (probably due to the precarious situation of the students, the considerable increase in the mental burden on wives and mothers who are unable to attend, leaving the home, and an aggravation of domestic violence), but also children (primary and secondary school children)! The situation is all the more delicate in Japan since, traditionally, suicide is not experienced in a particularly negative way, relating to the concept of an honourable end, in the context of the seppuku of the political and military elite in the Edo and Menji period (samurai); moreover, psychological suffering was traditionally put aside or hidden for the benefit of the visibility of collective harmony [1].In Thailand, different causes have the same consequences: the collapse of tourism and the growing number of bankruptcies have fuelled the anxiety of the population, while in terms of health (physical), the epidemic has been totally controlled with one of the lowest case fatalities in all of Asia. In this context, it is mainly male suicides, with a large proportion of students already weakened by the hyper-competitive nature of the university in this country and the obligation to succeed or perish [2]. Finally, the too great scarcity of access to neuro-psychiatric structures (already outside any pandemic, and even more because of COVID-19) has only made matters worse.In South Korea too, the suicide rate among young women (20–30 years) increased by 40%, compared to the same period in 2019, with causes comparable to those in Japan [3]. The same happened in China [4], India [5], etc. Asia is not an isolated case [6]. What about in other cultural contexts? We call on health professionals to let us know, in their areas of practice, if such situations are also encountered, and what measures have been taken by public structures to limit their importance.While Iran is currently the country most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic in the Middle East [7], Iran's Supreme Leader (Ali Khamenei) publicly announced on January 8, 2021, and then posted on social media (Twitter) that his country officially banned the importation of western vaccines [8]. The alleged reason? The lack of confidence, and the certainty that “these vaccines are used to infect people”. Mix in the rhetoric of conspiracy theory (the infamous chip that could spy on), “genome modification”, etc. The move was denounced by the Iranian Medical Council, which called for any available vaccine as soon as possible, and facilitating its use for the entire Iranian population. To fight in a “modern” way against the pandemic, the political authorities of Iran have therefore decided to turn to “non-aligned” countries (Cuba, Russia), and to try to develop a vaccine themselves. Obviously, we can well regret the delay taken on the therapeutic plan, with a treatment whose objectivity, safety and efficiency have been recognised by neutral authorities (WHO). It is also surprising that Iran, itself the victim of an international embargo, has chosen to self-isolate in terms of health, endangering the survival of a large part of the population by a totally anachronistic obscurantism and mistrust.In Brazil, two traditional leaders (Raoni Metuktire, from the Kayapo tribe; Almir Surui, from the Paiter-Surui tribe) filed a complaint on January 22, 2021 against the President of the Republic of Brazil (Jair Bolsonaro) and several of his ministers before the International Criminal Court [9]. The charges are multiple: crimes against humanity, murders, extermination, forced population transfers, enslavement, persecutions vis-{\`{a}}-vis the indigenous populations of the Amazon. Objectively, the policy of the populist president has been marked, since the start of his mandate (January 1, 2019) by the dismantling of government environmental protection agencies, an extension of deforestation, repeated violations of constitutional rights toward indigenous populations, and repeated racist statements. The voluntary use of toxic products in regions inhabited by these populations, and the systematic delay in dealing with the COVID-19 pandemic in these Amazonian territories, have been denounced by several international observers [10].These two examples are revealing of the involvement of politics in the health life of a population, whether as a whole or in its minority. Dogmatic demands, more or less well-founded beliefs, racial theories, economic or commercial collusion, so many elements that directly or indirectly influence public health policy. What is the margin of freedom for governments? At what point should we move from the independence of a country to a duty of interference from other countries for humanitarian reasons? What is their level of responsibility? Are they accountable to the people who brought them to power, to an alleged universal morality or ethics, or to international authorities (not necessarily unanimously recognised)? Who makes the choices? Who judges? Who acts? The question is epistemological. In the meantime, patients pile up, and death does its job.Disclosure of interestThe author declares that he has no competing interest.}, author = {Charlier, P.}, doi = {10.1016/j.jemep.2021.100637}, issn = {23525525}, journal = {Ethics, Medicine and Public Health}, pmid = {33558847}, title = {{COVID-19 actuality: From suicide epidemics in Asia to the responsibility of public authorities in the management of the crisis}}, year = {2021} } @article{Lazareva2021, abstract = {Increasing psychological resistance to manipulative influence and preventing the involvement of minors in illegal activities with the help of information and communication technologies (ICTs) are important tasks of the State. The article analyzes some psychological mechanisms that contribute to manipulation on the Internet, including the effects of normative influence, conformity, perceived interpersonal similarity, cascades of available information, emotional contagion, hemophilicity, false memories, and multiple sources. The authors analyze the main strategies for promoting false and misleading information: artificial polarization, managing false accounts on behalf of public opinion leaders, creating emotional messages, using conspiracy theories, trolling aimed at provoking harassment of users on the network, defaming and delegitimizing opponents. Attention is also drawn to ways to counteract destructive information and psychological impact, which include not only ways to improve the legislative apparatus and the use of software and technical solutions, but also to increase the level of psychological stability of citizens, conducting preventive and preventive measures aimed at forming ideas about information threats, their types, methods of identification and protection, group norms and values. The author points out the need to develop and implement special psychological trainings and games created in the form of computer programs, mobile applications and online simulators in the socio-cultural and educational environment.}, author = {Lazareva, Irina and Miheev, Evgeniy}, doi = {10.12737/2500-0543-2021-6-3-38-51}, journal = {Applied psychology and pedagogy}, title = {{IMPROVING THE PSYCHOLOGICAL RESISTANCE OF YOUNG PEOPLE TO MANIPULATIVE INFLUENCE ON THE INTERNET}}, year = {2021} } @article{Nct2021, abstract = {The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) has rapidly instigated a global pandemic. As of this writing, there are approximately 65 million documented cases of infection worldwide, and over 1.5 million deaths. In the United States (US), coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) has disrupted the economy, overwhelmed healthcare system, led to widespread school cancellations, and caused more than 274,000 deaths since March 2020. A vaccine against COVID‐19 is widely viewed as the key to controlling the pandemic and enabling a return to "normal" life. Vaccine development is proceeding at an unprecedented pace with 10 vaccines currently in phase 3 trials. Experts have projected that a safe and effective vaccine may be available by mid‐2021. At the same time, a growing body of evidence indicates that a significant proportion of adults in the U.S. may not accept vaccination against COVID‐19. Even more alarming, COVID‐19 vaccine hesitancy (refusal or reluctance to accept a vaccine) appears to be increasing as the vaccine approval process becomes increasingly politicized. Just as efforts to develop vaccine production and delivery capacity have been undertaken in advance of having a proven effective vaccine, parallel efforts are needed to identify effective messages and communication strategies to overcome COVID‐19 vaccine hesitancy. The study team recently surveyed a nationally representative sample of approximately 1,000 adults in the United States and found that only 57% intended to be vaccinated when a coronavirus vaccine becomes available. This percentage was even lower among people who identified as Black or Hispanic (39% and 43% respectively), those with a high school education or less (46%), and those in the lowest income groups (49% of those reporting a household income of $30,000 or less, compared to 72% of those reporting a household income of $100,000 or more). The investigators asked those who indicated they would not or might not get vaccinated for their reasons and found that some individuals may be willing to be vaccinated if provided specific information about the vaccine such as side effects and effectiveness. Others expressed generalized skepticism, fear, and distrust of vaccines, with some even referring to anti‐vaccine conspiracy theories. These findings are consistent with an extensive body of research documenting that people often do not behave rationally and highlight the urgent need to proactively develop and test interventions to maximize vaccination rates when a coronavirus vaccine becomes available. To address this need, in the present study, the investigators aim to create and test targeted messages to address the concerns of subgroups of people at risk for not being vaccinated, with the ultimate goal of maximizing vaccine uptake when a vaccine for COVID‐19 becomes available. The investigators will accomplish this by working with an existing online panel of volunteers, which will allow efficient, focused data gathering. Results of the survey will provide a nuanced, current description of how vulnerable adults perceive the coronavirus and available vaccines, which will be used as the basis for developing messages and communication strategies. Participants will be randomized to receive one of five different versions of a message from a healthcare provider regarding vaccination. Specific wording and content of these messages will vary systematically in order to address concerns of those at risk for not being vaccinated. This project will ultimately result in a set of tested, evidence‐derived messages about vaccination for COVID‐19. The investigators will make these messages available, together with evidence of how these influence members of vulnerable populations' understanding of vaccination, and disease risk, as well as intent to be vaccinated. The messages will be freely available for use by organizations and providers seeking to improve communication about a coronavirus vaccine.}, author = {Nct}, journal = {https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT04706403}, title = {{Views on COVID-19 and Vaccination}}, year = {2021} } @article{Drobot2021, abstract = {The COVID-19 pandemic contributes to numerous transformations of mass consciousness of varying content, depth and duration. Pandemic consciousness is considered by the author as the total amount of extreme and exaggerated assessments, views and attitudes which gain independence and become a mass trend, reflecting the current state of epidemic situation. The notion of pandemic consciousness of each of the subjects of public life (an individual, a group, a class, a nation, society as a whole) has several specific features and requires analysis from a scientific standpoint. The purpose of the study. The purpose of the study is a theoretical analysis of the phenomenon of pandemic consciousness as a special state of mass consciousness of society. Research methods include analysis, synthesis, comparison, specification, generalization, analogy and method of data triangulation. Results. Pandemic consciousness is a state of mass everyday consciousness that finds its expression in the indirect reflection of everyday life, its purpose being to assist society in meeting its needs related to physical and economic survival. An attempt was made to consider the procedural structure of consciousness which consists of six main elements, including: knowledge, thinking, emotions, attention, memory and will. Theoretical analysis of the phenomenon proved that basic manifestations of pandemic consciousness are situated in the cognitive plane – the phenomenon of infodemia, conspiracy theories, magical thinking, revival of enemy archetypes and conspiracies, search for new meanings, escape from unfavorable reality, generation of new simulacra, alarmism and angst-ridden future expectations. A number of negative psychological reactions to the pandemic were detected in the emotional plane of pandemic consciousness – sensory and emotional deprivation, increased feelings of danger and helplessness, anxiety, irritability, emotional exhaustion. The use of stereotypes simplifies reality and its image during pandemics. Pandemic experiences are influenced by the dynamics of personal needs, expectations integrated by the individual. The right way to alleviate the acute states of pandemic consciousness is to change perceptions of the world, vitality, tolerance for uncertainty, and one's own life position.The main group of verbal stimuli that activate the causal links of pandemic fears are: COVID-19, virus, epidemic, pandemic, infection, contamination, risk of infection, unmasked person, disease, hospital. Conclusions. It is concluded that the crisis that humanity is experiencing today is primarily an existential crisis. It is concluded that one of the main ways to correct the acute states of pandemic consciousness is to change perceptions of the world.}, author = {Drobot, Olha V.}, doi = {10.25264/2415-7384-2021-13-10-14}, issn = {24157384}, journal = {Scientific Notes of Ostroh Academy National University: Psychology Series}, title = {{PSYCHOLOGICAL MANIFESTATIONS OF MASS PANDEMIC CONSCIOUSNESS}}, year = {2021} } @article{, abstract = {The article describes the crisis experienced by the education system during the development of the digital economy. The main presupposition of the crisis rests upon the following paradox: although the modern economy is based on the accumulation, processing and dissemination of knowledge, a fragmented perception of knowledge as such is being formed nowadays in the whole of society. The urgency of this crisis is especially noticeable against the background of the unfolding pandemic, which exacerbated many serious problems in the academic structures both in Russia and in foreign countries. This crisis of education is supplemented (and enhanced by) the crisis of science as a source of authority in postmodern era. In particular, expansion of social networks within the digital economy leads to the crisis of rational discourse in the society, because of the tendency of individuals to form closed interest communities, based not only on free discussion, but also rather on common misunderstandings, conspiracy theories and esoteric, contra-scientific forms of knowledge. The purpose of the article is to highlight the most important features of this crisis, as well as to outline its specificity within the Russian context. The main conclusion of the article is, although the education crisis in Russia is in many ways more severe than in developed countries, there are still opportunities to overcome it, not only within the framework of an academic system as a whole, but also through a wide range of grassroots initiatives related to with the promotion of scientific knowledge to a mass audience, covering wide sectors of society.}, author = { and Sokolov, Dmitry}, doi = {10.17212/2075-0862-2021-13.2.1-33-50}, issn = {20750862}, journal = {Ideas and Ideals}, title = {{Knowledge and Education in Digital Era}}, year = {2021} } @article{Haladjian2021, abstract = {This study aims to expand upon the available research by further examining the intergenerational transmission of trauma (ITT) and specifically to investigate the effects of silence and acculturation on secondary trauma symptomatology among second, third, and fourth- generation Armenian Genocide survivors. Using Bowlby's (1969) attachment theory, this study examines family silence and patterns of ITT among Armenian Genocide survivors. While some recent studies, including Kuzirian (2012) and Kyupelyan (2016), have considered attachment theory as it relates to survivors of the Armenian Genocide, the impact of family silence has not been specifically studied. Research on Holocaust survivor families has found a "conspiracy of silence" to contribute to an absence of developing organized attachment (Bar-On et al., 1998). On the other hand, Holocaust survivor families who openly communicated and passed on narratives of trauma have been found to have lower psychological distress and had built higher levels of coping and resilience (Wiseman et al., 2002). The impact of family silence among Armenian-survivor families has not yet been studied. Thus, this research investigates the psychological effects of Armenian Genocide trauma on familial relationships and communication styles and psychological well-being. Previous research has found ethnic identity to predict secondary trauma symptoms, as individuals who identify with Armenian culture and past historical trauma are more affected by experiences of a survivor family member (Kuzirian, 2012). However, effects of silence and acculturation have not before been studied in relationship to secondary trauma symptoms among Armenian Genocide survivors and subsequent generations. The study consists of Armenian-American participants ages 17-75 with a relative who survived the Armenian Genocide. It was hypothesized that families who were silent or did not openly communicate history of Genocide trauma experiences will have higher secondary trauma symptoms in second, third, and fourth-generation family members. It was hypothesized that participants with higher acculturation will have lower levels of secondary trauma symptoms. While neither hypothesis was supported in the analyses, it was found that bicultural identity (Anglo and Armenian identity) may play a protective role in the transmission of secondary trauma (ST) for the Armenian population. Additionally, it was found that higher Anglo-Acculturation was associated with higher ST in second-, third-, and fourth-generation survivors. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)}, author = {Haladjian, Lucia}, issn = {0419-4217}, journal = {Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering}, keywords = {*Family,*Genocide,*Silence,*Survivors,*Trauma,Acculturation,Holocaust Survivors,Symptoms}, title = {{Intergenerational trauma among second, third, and fourth generation Armenian genocide survivors.}}, year = {2021} } @article{Haladjian2021a, abstract = {This study aims to expand upon the available research by further examining the intergenerational transmission of trauma (ITT) and specifically to investigate the effects of silence and acculturation on secondary trauma symptomatology among second, third, and fourth- generation Armenian Genocide survivors. Using Bowlby's (1969) attachment theory, this study examines family silence and patterns of ITT among Armenian Genocide survivors. While some recent studies, including Kuzirian (2012) and Kyupelyan (2016), have considered attachment theory as it relates to survivors of the Armenian Genocide, the impact of family silence has not been specifically studied. Research on Holocaust survivor families has found a "conspiracy of silence" to contribute to an absence of developing organized attachment (Bar-On et al., 1998). On the other hand, Holocaust survivor families who openly communicated and passed on narratives of trauma have been found to have lower psychological distress and had built higher levels of coping and resilience (Wiseman et al., 2002). The impact of family silence among Armenian-survivor families has not yet been studied. Thus, this research investigates the psychological effects of Armenian Genocide trauma on familial relationships and communication styles and psychological well-being. Previous research has found ethnic identity to predict secondary trauma symptoms, as individuals who identify with Armenian culture and past historical trauma are more affected by experiences of a survivor family member (Kuzirian, 2012). However, effects of silence and acculturation have not before been studied in relationship to secondary trauma symptoms among Armenian Genocide survivors and subsequent generations. The study consists of Armenian-American participants ages 17-75 with a relative who survived the Armenian Genocide. It was hypothesized that families who were silent or did not openly communicate history of Genocide trauma experiences will have higher secondary trauma symptoms in second, third, and fourth-generation family members. It was hypothesized that participants with higher acculturation will have lower levels of secondary trauma symptoms. While neither hypothesis was supported in the analyses, it was found that bicultural identity (Anglo and Armenian identity) may play a protective role in the transmission of secondary trauma (ST) for the Armenian population. Additionally, it was found that higher Anglo-Acculturation was associated with higher ST in second-, third-, and fourth-generation survivors. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)}, author = {Haladjian, Lucia}, issn = {0419-4217}, journal = {Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering}, keywords = {*Family,*Genocide,*Silence,*Survivors,*Trauma,Acculturation,Holocaust Survivors,Symptoms}, title = {{Intergenerational trauma among second, third, and fourth generation Armenian genocide survivors.}}, year = {2021} } @misc{Kossowska2015, abstract = {In this chapter, we suggest that some people might adopt conspiracy beliefs out of a desire for certainty, whereas others adopt the same beliefs because of a threat to personal control. It is also possible that these two motives are intertwined. For example, low control and power usually also mean low certainty. Therefore, these two motives operating together may potentially lead to especially strong support for conspiracies. Finally, we propose that conspiracy thinking is a feature of the mind that is related to the search for explanations (meaning) when certainty, control, or power is lacking. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)}, author = {Kossowska, Ma{\l}gorzata and Bukowski, Marcin}, booktitle = {The psychology of conspiracy.}, isbn = {978-1-138-81520-9 (Hardcover); 978-1-138-81523-0 (Paperback); 978-1-315-74683-8 (Digital (undefined format))}, keywords = {*Interpersonal Control,*Motivation,*Thinking,*Uncertainty,Theories}, title = {{Motivated roots of conspiracies: The role of certainty and control motives in conspiracy thinking.}}, year = {2015} } @article{Soares2021, abstract = {Introduction In this article, we hypothesise how mainstream media coverage can promote the spread of disinformation about Covid-19. Mainstream media are often discussed as opposed to disinformation (Glasser; Benkler et al.). While the disinformation phenomenon is related to the intentional production and spread of misleading and false information to influence public opinion (Fallis; Benkler et al.), mainstream media news is expected to be based on facts and investigation and focussed on values such as authenticity, accountability, and autonomy (Hayes et al.). However, journalists might contribute to the spread of disinformation when they skip some stage of information processing and reproduce false or misleading information (Himma-Kadakas). Besides, even when the purpose of the news is to correct disinformation, media coverage might contribute to its dissemination by amplifying it (Tsfati et al.). This could be particularly problematic in the context of social media, as users often just read headlines while scrolling through their timelines (Newman et al.; Ofcom). Thus, some users might share news from the mainstream media to legitimate disinformation about Covid-19. The pandemic creates a delicate context, as journalists are often pressured to produce more information and, therefore, are more susceptible to errors. In this research, we focussed on the hypothesis that legitimate news can contribute to the spread of disinformation on social media through headlines that reinforce disinformation discourses, even though the actual piece may frame the story differently. The research questions that guide this research are: are URLs with headlines that reinforce disinformation discourses and other mainstream media links shared into the same Facebook groups? Are the headlines that support disinformation discourses shared by Facebook users to reinforce disinformation narratives?  As a case study, we look at the Brazilian disinformation context on Covid-19. The discussion about the disease in the country has been highly polarised and politically framed, often with government agents and scientists disputing the truth about facts on the disease (Ara{\'{u}}jo and Oliveira; Recuero and Soares; Recuero et al.). Particularly, the social media ecosystem seems to play an important role in these disputes, as Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro and his supporters use it as a key channel to spread disinformation about the virus (Lisboa et al.; Soares et al.). We use data from public groups on Facebook collected through CrowdTangle and a combination of social network analysis and content analysis to analyse the spread and the content of URLs and posts.  Theoretical Background Disinformation has been central to the Covid-19 “infodemic”, created by the overabundance of information about the pandemic, which makes it hard for people to find reliable guidance and exacerbates the outbreak (Tangcharoensathien et al.). We consider disinformation as distorted, manipulated, or false information intentionally created to mislead someone (Fallis; Benkler et al.). Disinformation is often used to strengthen radical political ideologies (Benkler et al.). Around the world, political actors politically framed the discussion about the pandemic, which created a polarised public debate about Covid-19 (Allcott et al., Gruzd and Mai; Recuero and Soares). On social media, contexts of polarisation between two different political views often present opposed narratives about the same fact that dispute public attention (Soares et al.). This polarisation creates a suitable environment for disinformation to thrive (Benkler et al.) The polarised discussions are often associated with the idea of “bubbles”, as the different political groups tend to share and legitimate only discourses that are aligned with the group's ideological views. Consequently, these groups might turn into ideological bubbles (Pariser). In these cases, content shared within one group is not shared within the other and vice versa. Pariser argues that users within the bubbles are exposed exclusively to content with which they tend to agree. However, research has shown that Pariser's concept of bubbles has limitations (Bruns), as most social media users are exposed to a variety of sources of information (Guess et al.). Nevertheless, polarisation might lead to different media diets and disinformation consumption (Benkler et al.). That is, users would have contact with different types of information, but they would choose to share certain content over others because of their political alignment (Bruns). Therefore, we understand that bubbles are created by the action of social media users who give preference to circulate (through retweets, likes, comments, or shares) content that supports their political views, including disinformation (Recuero et al.). Thus, bubbles are ephemeral structures (created by users' actions in the context of a particular political discussion) with permeable boundaries (users are exposed to content from the outside) in discussions on social media. This type of ephemeral bubble might use disinformation as a tool to create a unique discourse that supports its views. However, it does not mean that actors within a “disinformation bubble” do not have access to other content, such as the news from the mainstream media. It means that the group acts to discredit and to overlap this content with an “alternative” story (Larsson). In addition, the mainstream media might disseminate false or inaccurate disinformation (Tsfati et al.). Particularly, we focus on inaccurate headlines that reinforce disinformation narratives, as social media users often only read news headlines (Newman et al.; Ofcom). This is especially problematic because a large number of social media users are exposed to mainstream media content, while exposure to disinformation websites is heavily concentrated on only a few users (Guess et al.; Tsfati et al.). Therefore, when the mainstream media disseminate disinformation, it is more likely that a larger number of social media users will be exposed to this content and share it into ideological bubbles. Based on this discussion, we aim to understand how the mainstream media contribute to the spread of disinformation discourses about Covid-19. Methods This study is about how mainstream media coverage might contribute to the spread of disinformation about Covid-19 on Facebook. We propose two hypotheses, as follows: H1: When mainstream media headlines frame the information in a way that reinforces the disinformation narrative, the links go into a “disinformation bubble”. H2: In these cases, Facebook users might use mainstream media coverage to legitimate disinformation narratives. We selected three case studies based on events that created both political debate and high media coverage in Brazil. We chose them based on the hypothesis that part of the mainstream media links could have produced headlines that support disinformation discourses, as the political debate was high. The events are:  On 24 March 2020, Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro made a public pronouncement on live television. In the week before the pronouncement, Brazilian governors decided to follow World Health Organisation (WHO) protocols and closed non-essential business. In his speech, Bolsonaro criticised social distancing measures. The mainstream media reproduced some of his claims and claims from other public personalities, such as entrepreneurs who also said the protocols would harm the economy.  On 8 June 2020, a WHO official said that it “seems to be rare that an asymptomatic person transmits [Covid-19] onward to a secondary individual”. Part of the mainstream media reproduced the claim out of context, which could promote the misperception that both asymptomatic and pre-symptomatic persons (early stages of an illness, before the first symptoms) do not transmit Covid-19 at all.  On 9 November 2020, Brazil's national sanitary watchdog Anvisa reported that they had halted the clinical studies on the CoronaVac vaccine, developed by the Chinese company Sinovac. Bolsonaro often criticised CoronaVac because it was being produced in partnership with S{\~{a}}o Paulo's Butantan Institute and became the subject of a political dispute between Bolsonaro and the Governor of S{\~{a}}o Paulo, Jo{\~{a}}o D{\'{o}}ria. Bolsonaro said the halt of the CoronaVac trial was "another victory for Jair Bolsonaro". Anvisa halted the trail after a "severe adverse event". The mainstream media rapidly reverberated the decision. Later, it was revealed that the incident was a death that had nothing to do with the vaccine.  Before we created our final dataset that includes links from the three events together, we explored the most shared URLs in each event. We used keywords to collect posts shared in the public groups monitored by CrowdTangle, a tool owned by Facebook that tracks publicly available posts on the platform. We collected posts in a timeframe of three days for each event to prevent the collection of links unrelated to the cases. We collected only posts containing URLs. Table 1 summarises the data collected. Table 1: Data collected Dates March 24-26 2020 June 8-10 2020 November 9-11 2020 Keywords “Covid-19” or “coronavirus” and “isolation” or “economy” “Covid-19” or “coronavirus” and “asymptomatic” “vaccine” and “Anvisa” or “CoronaVac” Number of posts 4780 2060 3273 From this original dataset, we selected the 60 most shared links from each period (n=180). We then filtered for those which sources were mainstream media outlets (n=74). We used content analysis (Krippendorff) to observe which of these URLs headlines could reinforce disinformation narratives (two independent coders, Krippendorff's Alpha = 0.76). We focussed on headlines because when these links are shared on Facebook, often it is the headline that appears to other users. We considered that a headlined reinforced disinformation discourses only when it was flagged by both coders (n=21 – some examples are provided in Table 3 in the Results section). Table 2 provides a breakdown of this analysis. Table 2: Content analysis Event Mainstream media links Headlines that support disinformation discourses Number of links Number of posts Economy and quarantine 24 7 112 Asymptomatic 22 7 163 Vaccine trial 28 7 120 Total 74 21 395 As the number of posts that shared URLs with headlines that supported disinformation was low (n=395), we conducted another CrowdTangle search to create our final dataset. We used a sample of the links we classified to create a “balanced” dataset. Out of the 21 links with headlines that reinforced disinformation, we collected the 10 most shared in public groups monitored by CrowdTangle (this time, without any particular timeframe) (n=1346 posts). In addition, we created a “control group” with the 10 most shared links that neither of the coders considered could reinforce disinformation (n=1416 posts). The purpose of the “control group” was to identify which Facebook groups tend to share mainstream media links without headlines that reinforce disinformation narratives. Therefore, our final dataset comprises 20 links and 2762 posts.  We then used social network analysis (Wasserman and Faust) to map the spread of the 20 links. We created a bipartite network, in which nodes are (1) Facebook groups and (2) URLs; and edges represent when a post within a group includes a URL from our dataset. We applied a modularity metric (Blondel et al.) to identify clusters. The modularity metric allows us to identify “communities” that share the same or similar links in the network map. Thus, it helped us to identify if there was a “bubble” that only shares the links with headlines that support disinformation (H1).  To understand if the disinformation was supporting a larger narrative shared by the groups, we explored the political alignments of each cluster (H2). We used Textometrica (Lindgreen and Palm) to create word clouds with the most frequent words in the names of the cluster groups (at least five mentions) and their connections. Finally, we also analysed the posts that shared each of the 10 links with headlines that reinforced disinformation. This also helped us to identify how the mainstream media links could legitimate disinformation narratives (H2). Out of the 1346 posts, only 373 included some message (the other 973 posts only shared the link). We used content analysis to see if these posts reinforced the disinformation (two independent coders – Krippendorff's Alpha = 0.723). There were disagreements in the categorisation of 27 posts. The two coders reviewed and discussed the classification of these posts to reach an agreement. Results Bubbles of information  In the graph (Figure 1), red nodes are links with headlines that support disinformation discourses, blue nodes are the other mainstream media links, and black nodes are Facebook groups. Our first finding is that groups that shared headlines that support disinformation rarely shared the other mainstream media links. Out of the 1623 groups in the network, only 174 (10.7%) shared both a headline that supports disinformation discourse, and another mainstream media link; 712 groups (43.8%) only shared headlines that support disinformation; and 739 groups (45.5%) only shared other links from the mainstream media. Therefore, users' actions created two bubbles of information. Figure 1: Network graph The modularity metric confirmed this tendency of two “bubbles” in the network (Figure 2). The purple cluster includes seven URLs with headlines that support disinformation discourse. The green cluster includes three headlines that support disinformation discourse and the other 10 links from the mainstream media. This result partially supports H1: When mainstream media headlines frame the information in a way that reinforces the disinformation narrative, the links go into a “disinformation bubble”. As we identified, most of the headlines that support disinformation discourse went into a separate “bubble”, as users within the groups of this bubble did not share the other links from the mainstream media. Figure 2: Network graph with modularity This result shows that users' actions boost the creation of bubbles (Bakshy et al.), as they choose to share one type of content over the other. The mainstream media are the source of all the URLs we analysed. However, users from the purple cluster chose to share only links with headlines that supported disinformation discourses. This result is also related to the political framing of the discussions, as we explore below. Disinformation and Political Discourse We used word clouds (Lindgreen and Palm) to analyse the Facebook groups' names to explore the ideological affiliation of the bubbles. The purple bubble is strongly related to Bolsonaro and his discourse (Figure 3). Bolsonaro is the most frequent word. Other prevalent words are Brazil, patriots (both related to his nationalist discourse), right-wing, conservative, military (three words related to his conservative discourse and his support of the military dictatorship that ruled Brazil from 1964 to 1985), President, support, and Alliance [for Brazil] (the name of his party). Some of the most active groups within the purple bubble are “Alliance for Brazil”, “Bolsonaro 2022 [next presidential election]”, “Bolsonaro's nation 2022”, and “I am right-wing with pride”. Figure 3: Purple cluster word cloud Bolsonaro is also a central word in the green cluster word cloud (Figure 4). However, it is connected to other words such as “against” and “out”, as many groups are anti-Bolsonaro. Furthermore, words such as left-wing, Workers' Party (centre-left party), Lula and Dilma Rousseff (two Workers' Party ex-presidents) show another ideological alignment in general. In addition, there are many local groups (related to locations such as Rio de Janeiro, S{\~{a}}o Paulo, Rio Grande do Sul, Minas Gerais, and others), and groups to share news (news, newspaper, radio, portal). “We are 70 per cent [anti-Bolsonaro movement]”, “Union of the Left”, “Lula president”, and “Anti-Bolsonaro” are some of the most active groups within the green cluster. Figure 4: Green cluster word cloud Then, we analysed how users shared the mainstream media links with headlines that support disinformation discourses. In total, we found that 81.8% of the messages in the posts that shared these links also reproduced disinformation narratives. The frequency was higher (86.2%) when considering only posts that shared one of the seven links from the purple cluster (based on the modularity metric). Consequently, it was lower (64%) in the messages that shared one of the other three links.  The messages often showed support for Bolsonaro; criticised other political and health authorities (the WHO, S{\~{a}}o Paulo Governor Jo{\~{a}}o D{\'{o}}ria, and others), China, and the “leftists” (all opposition to Bolsonaro); claimed that quarantine and social distancing measures were unnecessary; and framed vaccines as dangerous. We provide some examples of headlines and posts in Table 3 (we selected the most-shared URL for each event to illustrate). This result supports H2 as we found that users shared mainstream media headlines that reinforce disinformation discourse to legitimate the disinformation narrative; and that it was more prevalent in the purple bubble.  Table 3: Examples of headlines and posts Headline Post "Unemployment is a crisis much worse than coronavirus", says Bolsonaro Go to social media to support the President. Unemployment kills. More than any virus... hunger, depression, despair and everything UNEMPLOYMENT, THE DEPUTIES CHAMBER, THE SENATE AND THE SUPREME COURT KILL MORE THAN COVID19 Asymptomatic patients do not boost coronavirus, says WHO QUARANTINE IS FAKE #StayHome, the lie of the century! THIS GOES TO THE PUPPETS OF THE COMMUNIST PARTIES THE AND FUNERARY MEDIA Anvisa halts Coronavac vaccine trial after "serious adverse event" [The event] is adverse and serious, so the vaccine killed the person by covid And Doria [Governor of S{\~{a}}o Paulo and political adversary of Bolsonaro] wants to force you to take this shit This result shows that mainstream media headlines that support disinformation narratives may be used to reinforce disinformation discourses when shared on Facebook, making journalists potential agents of disinformation (Himma-Kadakas; Tsfati et al.). In particular, the credibility of mainstream news is used to support an opposing discourse, that is, a disinformation discourse. This is especially problematic in the context of Covid-19 because the mainstream media end up fuelling the infodemic (Tangcharoensathien et al.) by sharing inaccurate information or reverberating false claims from political actors.  Conclusion In this article, we analysed how the mainstream media contribute to the spread of disinformation about Covid-19. In particular, we looked at how links from the mainstream media with headlines that support disinformation discourse spread on Facebook, compared to other links from the mainstream media. Two research questions guided this study: Are URLs with headlines that reinforce disinformation discourses and other mainstream media links shared into the same Facebook groups? Are the headlines that support disinformation discourses shared by Facebook users to reinforce disinformation narratives?  We identified that (1) some Facebook groups only shared links with headlines that support disinformation narratives. This created a “disinformation bubble”. In this bubble, (2) Facebook users shared mainstream media links to reinforce disinformation – in particular, pro-Bolsonaro disinformation, as many of these groups had a pro-Bolsonaro alignment. In these cases, the mainstream media contributed to the spread of disinformation. Consequently, journalists ought to take extra care when producing news, especially headlines, which will be the most visible part of the stories on social media. This study has limitations. We analysed only a sample of links (n=20) based on three events in Brazil. Other events and other political contexts might result in different outcomes. Furthermore, we used CrowdTangle for data collection. CrowdTangle only provides information about public posts in groups monitored by the tool. Therefore, our result does not represent the entire Facebook. References Allcott, Hunt, et al. “Polarization and Public Health: Partisan Differences in Social Distancing during the Coronavirus Pandemic.” National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper No. 26946 (2020). 6 Jan. 2021 . Ara{\'{u}}jo, Ronaldo Ferreira, and Thaiane Moreira Oliveira. “Desinforma{\c{c}}{\~{a}}o e Mensagens Sobre a Hidroxicloroquina no Twitter: Da Press{\~{a}}o Pol{\'{i}}tica {\`{a}} Disputa Cient{\'{i}}fica.” Atoz – Novas Pr{\'{a}}ticas em Informa{\c{c}}{\~{a}}o e Conhecimento 9.2 (2020). 6 Jan. 2021 . Bakshy, Eytan, et al. “Exposure to Ideologically Diverse News and Opinion on Facebook.” Science 348.6239 (2015). 6 Jan. 2021 . Benkler, Yochai, et al. Network Propaganda: Manipulation, Disinformation, and Radicalization in American Politics. New York: Oxford University Press, 2018. Blondel, Vincent D., et al. “Fast Unfolding of Communities in Large Networks.” Physics.soc-ph (2008). 6 Jan. 2021 . Bruns, Axel. Are Filter Bubbles Real?. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2019. CrowdTangle Team. CrowdTangle. Menlo Park, Calif.: Facebook, 2020. . Fallis, Don. “What Is Disinformation?” Library Trends 63.3 (2015): 401-426. Glasser, Susan B. “Covering Politics in a ‘Post-Truth' America.” Brookings Institution Press, 2 Dec. 2016. 22 Feb. 2021 . Gruzd, Anatoliy, and Philip Mai. “Going Viral: How a Single Tweet Spawned a COVID-19 Conspiracy Theory on Twitter.” Big Data & Society, 7.2 (2020). 6 Jan. 2021 . Guess, Andrew, et al. Avoiding the Echo Chamber about Echo Chambers: Why Selective Exposure to Like-Minded Political News Is Less Prevalent than You Think. Miami: John S. and James L. Knight Foundation, 2018. Hayes, Arthur S., et al. “Shifting Roles, Enduring Values: The Credible Journalist in a Digital Age.” Journal of Mass Media Ethics 22.4 (2007): 262-279. 22 Feb.2021 . Himma-Kadakas, Marju. “Alternative Facts and Fake News Entering Journalistic Content Production Cycle”. Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: An Interdisciplinary Journal 9.2 (2017). 6 Jan. 2021 . Kripendorff, Klaus. Content Analysis: An Introduction to Its Methodology. California: Sage Publications, 2013. Larsson, Anders Olof. “News Use as Amplification – Norwegian National, Regional and Hyperpartisan Media on Facebook.” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 96 (2019). 6 Jan. 2021 . Lindgreen, Simon, and Fredrik Palm. Textometrica Service Package (2011). 6 Jan. 2021 . Lisboa, Lucas A., et al. “A Dissemina{\c{c}}{\~{a}}o da Desinforma{\c{c}}{\~{a}}o Promovida por L{\'{i}}deres Estatais na Pandemia da COVID-19.” Proceedings of the Workshop Sobre as Implica{\c{c}}{\~{o}}es da Computa{\c{c}}{\~{a}}o na Sociedade (WICS), Porto Alegre: Sociedade Brasileira de Computa{\c{c}}{\~{a}}o, 2020. 6 Jan. 2021 . Newman, Nic, et al. Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2018. Oxford: Oxford University, 2018. Ofcom. “Scrolling News: The Changing Face of Online News Consumption.” 2016. 23 Feb. 2021 . Pariser, Eli. The Filter Bubble. New York: Penguin, 2011. Recuero, Raquel, and Felipe Soares. “O Discurso Desinformativo sobre a Cura do COVID-19 no Twitter: Estudo de Caso.” E-Comp{\'{o}}s (2020). 23 Feb. 2021 . Recuero, Raquel, et al. “Polarization, Hyperpartisanship, and Echo Chambers: How the Disinformation about COVID-19 Circulates on Twitter.” Contracampo (2021, in press). 23 Feb. 2021 . Soares, Felipe Bonow, et al. “Disputas discursivas e desinforma{\c{c}}{\~{a}}o no Instagram sobre o uso da hidroxicloroquina como tratamento para o Covid-19.” Proceedings of the 43{\textordmasculine} Congresso Brasileiro de Ci{\^{e}}ncias da Comunica{\c{c}}{\~{a}}o, Salvador: Intercom, 2020. 23 Feb. 2021 . Tangcharoensathien, Viroj, et al. “Framework for Managing the COVID-19 Infodemic: Methods and Results of an Online Crowdsourced WHO Technical Consultation.” J Med Internet Res 22.6 (2020). 6 Jan. 2021 . Tsfati, Yariv, et al. “Causes and Consequences of Mainstream Media Dissemination of Fake News: Literature Review and Synthesis.” Annals of the International Communication Association 44.2 (2020): 157-173. 22 Feb. 2021 . Wasserman, Stanley, and Katherine Faust. Social Network Analysis: Methods and Applications. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1994.},
author = {Soares, Felipe and Recuero, Raquel},
doi = {10.5204/mcj.2735},
issn = {1441-2616},
journal = {M/C Journal},
title = {{How the Mainstream Media Help to Spread Disinformation about Covid-19}},
year = {2021}
}

Countering Criticism of the Warren Report (PSYCH 1967)

Weaponization of the term”conspiracy theory”


CIA record #104-10406-10110 on “Countering Criticism Of The Warren Report”, Uncovered by a 1976 FOIA request from the New York Times.



PSYCH

1. Our Concern. From the day of President Kennedy’s assassination on, there has been speculation about the responsibility for his murder. Although this was stemmed for a time by the Warren Commission report, (which appeared at the end of September 1964), various writers have now had time to scan the Commission’s published report and documents for new pretexts for questioning, and there has been a new wave of books and articles criticizing the Commission’s findings. In most cases the critics have speculated as to the existence of some kind of conspiracy, and often they have implied that the Commission itself was involved. Presumably as a result of the increasing challenge to the Warren Commission’s report, a public opinion poll recently indicated that 46% of the American public did not think that Oswald acted alone, while more than half of those polled thought that the Commission had left some questions unresolved. Doubtless polls abroad would show similar, or possibly more adverse results.

“Western European critics” see Kennedy’s assassination as part of a subtle conspiracy attributable to “perhaps even (in rumors I have heard) Kennedy’s successor [Johnson].” One Barbara Garson has made the same point in another way by her parody of Shakespeare’s “Macbeth” entitled “MacBird,” with what was obviously President Kennedy (Ken O Dune) in the role of Duncan, and President Johnson (MacBird) in the role of Macbeth.

2. This trend of opinion is a matter of concern to the U.S. government, including our organization. The members of the Warren Commission were naturally chosen for their integrity, experience and prominence. They represented both major parties, and they and their staff were deliberately drawn from all sections of the country. Just because of the standing of the Commissioners, efforts to impugn their rectitude and wisdom tend to cast doubt on the whole leadership of American society. Moreover, there seems to be an increasing tendency to hint that President Johnson himself, as the one person who might be said to have benefited, was in some way responsible for the assassination. Innuendo of such seriousness affects not only the individual concerned, but also the whole reputation of the American government. Our organization itself is directly involved: among other facts, we contributed information to the investigation. Conspiracy theories have frequently thrown suspicion on our organization, for example by falsely alleging that Lee Harvey Oswald worked for us. The aim of this dispatch is to provide material countering and discrediting the claims of the conspiracy theorists, so as to inhibit the circulation of such claims in other countries. Background information is supplied in a classified section and in a number of unclassified attachments.

3. Action. We do not recommend that discussion of the assassination question be initiated where it is not already taking place. Where discussion is active [business] addresses are requested:

a. To discuss the publicity problem with [?] and friendly elite contacts (especially politicians and editors), pointing out that the Warren Commission made as thorough an investigation as humanly possible, that the charges of the critics are without serious foundation, and that further speculative discussion only plays into the hands of the opposition. Point out also that parts of the conspiracy talk appear to be deliberately generated by Communist propagandists. Urge them to use their influence to discourage unfounded and irresponsible speculation.

b. To employ propaganda assets to [negate] and refute the attacks of the critics. Book reviews and feature articles are particularly appropriate for this purpose. The unclassified attachments to this guidance should provide useful background material for passing to assets. Our ploy should point out, as applicable, that the critics are

(I) wedded to theories adopted before the evidence was in,

(II) politically interested,

(III) financially interested,

(IV) hasty and inaccurate in their research, or

(V) infatuated with their own theories.

In the course of discussions of the whole phenomenon of criticism, a useful strategy may be to single out Epstein’s theory for attack, using the attached Fletcher [?] article and Spectator piece for background. (Although Mark Lane’s book is much less convincing that Epstein’s and comes off badly where confronted by knowledgeable critics, it is also much more difficult to answer as a whole, as one becomes lost in a morass of unrelated details.

4. In private to media discussions not directed at any particular writer, or in attacking publications which may be yet forthcoming, the following arguments should be useful:

a. No significant new evidence has emerged which the Commission did not consider. The assassination is sometimes compared (e.g., by Joachim Joesten and Bertrand Russell) with the Dreyfus case; however, unlike that case, the attacks on the Warren Commission have produced no new evidence, no new culprits have been convincingly identified, and there is no agreement among the critics. (A better parallel, though an imperfect one, might be with the Reichstag fire of 1933, which some competent historians (Fritz Tobias, A.J.P. Taylor, D.C. Watt) now believe was set by Van der Lubbe on his own initiative, without acting for either Nazis or Communists; the Nazis tried to pin the blame on the Communists, but the latter have been more successful in convincing the world that the Nazis were to blame.)

b. Critics usually overvalue particular items and ignore others. They tend to place more emphasis on the recollections of individual witnesses (which are less reliable and more divergent Q and hence offer more hand-holds for criticism) and less on ballistics, autopsy, and photographic evidence. A close examination of the Commission’s records will usually show that the conflicting eyewitness accounts are quoted out of context, or were discarded by the Commission for good and sufficient reason.

c. Conspiracy on the large scale often suggested would be impossible to conceal in the United States, esp. since informants could expect to receive large royalties, etc. Note that Robert Kennedy, Attorney General at the time and John F. Kennedy’s brother, would be the last man to overlook or conceal any conspiracy. And as one reviewer pointed out, Congressman Gerald R. Ford would hardly have held his tongue for the sake of the Democratic administration, and Senator Russell would have had every political interest in exposing any misdeeds on the part of Chief Justice Warren. A conspirator moreover would hardly choose a location for a shooting where so much depended on conditions beyond his control: the route, the speed of the cars, the moving target, the risk that the assassin would be discovered. A group of wealthy conspirators could have arranged much more secure conditions.

d. Critics have often been enticed by a form of intellectual pride: they light on some theory and fall in love with it; they also scoff at the Commission because it did not always answer every question with a flat decision one way or the other. Actually, the make-up of the Commission and its staff was an excellent safeguard against over-commitment to any one theory, or against the illicit transformation of probabilities into certainties.

e. Oswald would not have been any sensible person’s choice for a co-conspirator. He was a “loner,” mixed up, of questionable reliability and an unknown quantity to any professional intelligence service.

f. As to charges that the Commission’s report was a rush job, it emerged three months after the deadline originally set. But to the degree that the Commission tried to speed up its reporting, this was largely due to the pressure of irresponsible speculation already appearing, in some cases coming from the same critics who, refusing to admit their errors, are now putting out new criticism.

g. Such vague accusations as that “more than ten people have died mysteriously” can always be explained in some natural way e.g.: the individuals concerned have for the most part died of natural causes; the Commission staff questioned 418 witnesses (the FBI interviewed far more people, conduction 25,000 interviews and reinterviews), and in such a large group, a certain number of deaths are to be expected. (When Penn Jones, one of the originators of the “ten mysterious deaths” line, appeared on television, it emerged that two of the deaths on his list were from heart attacks, one from cancer, one was from a head-on collision on a bridge, and one occurred when a driver drifted into a bridge abutment.)

5. Where possible, counter speculation by encouraging reference to the Commission’s Report itself. Open-minded foreign readers should still be impressed by the care, thoroughness, objectivity and speed with which the Commission worked. Reviewers of other books might be encouraged to add to their account the idea that, checking back with the report itself, they found it far superior to the work of its critics.

Attachment 1

4 January 1967

Background Survey of Books Concerning the Assassination of President Kennedy

1. (Except where otherwise indicated, the factual data given in paragraphs 1-9 is unclassified.) Some of the authors of recent books on the assassination of President Kennedy (e.g., Joachim Joesten, Oswald: Assassin or Fall Guy; Mark Lane, Rush to Judgment [sic]; Leo Sauvage, The Oswald Affair: An Examination of the Contradictions and Omissions of the Warren Report) had publicly asserted that a conspiracy existed before the Warren Commission finished its investigation. Not surprisingly, they immediately bestirred themselves to show that they were right and that the Commission was wrong. Thanks to the mountain of material published by the Commission, some of it conflicting or misleading when read out of context, they have had little difficulty in uncovering items to substantiate their own theories. They have also in some cases obtained new and divergent testimony from witnesses. And they have usually failed to discuss the refutations of their early claims in the Commission’s Report, Appendix XII (“Speculations and Rumors”). This Appendix is still a good place to look for material countering the theorists.

2. Some writers appear to have been predisposed to criticism by anti-American, far-left, or Communist sympathies. The British “Who Killed Kennedy Committee” includes some of the most persistent and vocal English critics of the United States, e.g., Michael Foot, Kingsley Martin, Kenneth Tynan, and Bertrand Russell. Joachim Joesten has been publicly revealed as a onetime member of the German Communist Party (KDP); a Gestapo document of 8 November 1937 among the German Foreign Ministry files microfilmed in England and now returned to West German custody shows that his party book was numbered 532315 and dated 12 May 1932. (The originals of these files are now available at the West German Foreign Ministry in Bonn; the copy in the U.S. National Archives may be found under the reference T-120, Serial 4918, frames E2564824. The British Public Records Office should also have a copy.) Joesten’s American publisher, Carl Marzani, was once sentence to jail by a federal jury for concealing his Communist Party (CPUSA) membership in order to hold a government job. Available information indicates that Mark Lane was elected Vice Chairman of the New York Council to Abolish the House Un-American Activities Committee on 28 May 1963; he also attended the 8th Congress of the International Association of Democratic Lawyers (an international Communist front organization) in Budapest from 31 March to 5 April 1964, where he expounded his (pre-Report) views on the Kennedy assassination. In his acknowledgments in his book, Lane expresses special thanks to Ralph Schoenman of London “who participated in and supported the work”; Schoenman is of course the expatriate American who has been influencing the aged Bertrand Russell in recent years. (See also para. 10 below on Communist efforts to replay speculation on the assassination.)

3. Another factor has been the financial reward obtainable for sensational books. Mark Lane’s Rush to Judgment, published on 13 August 1966, had sold 85,000 copies by early November and the publishers had printed 140,000 copies by that date, in anticipation of sales to come. The 1 January 1967 New York Times Book Review reported the book as at the top of the General category of the best seller list, having been in top position for seven weeks and on the list for 17 weeks. Lane has reportedly appeared on about 175 television and radio programs, and has also given numerous public lectures, all of which serves for advertisement. He has also put together a TV film, and is peddling it to European telecasters; the BBC has purchased rights for a record $45,000. While neither Abraham Zapruder nor William Manchester should be classed with the critics of the Commission we are discussing here, sums paid for the Zapruder film of the assassination ($25,000) and for magazine rights to Manchester’s Death of a President ($665,000) indicate the money available for material related to the assassination. Some newspapermen (e.g., Sylvan Fox, The Unanswered Questions About President Kennedy’s Assassination; Leo Sauvage, The Oswald Affair) have published accounts cashing in on their journalistic expertise.

4. Aside from political and financial motives, some people have apparently published accounts simply because they were burning to give the world their theory, e.g., Harold Weisberg, in his Whitewash II, Penn Jones, Jr., in Forgive My Grief, and George C. Thomson in The Quest for Truth. Weisberg’s book was first published privately, though it is now finally attaining the dignity of commercial publication. Jones’ volume was published by the small-town Texas newspaper of which he is the editor, and Thomson’s booklet by his own engineering firm. The impact of these books will probably be relatively slight, since their writers will appear to readers to be hysterical or paranoid.

5. A common technique among many of the writers is to raise as many questions as possible, while not bothering to work out all the consequences. Herbert Mitgang has written a parody of this approach (his questions actually refer to Lincoln’s assassination) in “A New Inquiry is Needed,” New York Times Magazine, 25 December 1966. Mark Lane in particular (who represents himself as Oswald’s lawyer) adopts the classic defense attorney’s approach of throwing in unrelated details so as to create in the jury’s mind a sum of “reasonable doubt.” His tendency to wander off into minor details led one observer to comment that whereas a good trial lawyer should have a sure instinct for the jugular vein, Lane’s instinct was for the capillaries. His tactics and also his nerve were typified on the occasion when, after getting the Commission to pay his travel expenses back from England, he recounted to that body a sensational (and incredible) story of a Ruby plot, while refusing to name his source. Chief Justice Warren told Lane, “We have every reason to doubt the truthfulness of what you have heretofore told us” Q by the standards of legal etiquette, a very stiff rebuke for an attorney.

6. It should be recognized, however, that another kind of criticism has recently emerged, represented by Edward Jay Epstein’s Inquest. Epstein adopts a scholarly tone, and to the casual reader, he presents what appears to be a more coherent, reasoned case than the writers described above. Epstein has caused people like Richard Rovere and Lord Devlin, previously backers of the Commission’s Report, to change their minds. The New York Times’ daily book reviewer has said that Epstein’s work is a “watershed book” which has made it respectable to doubt the Commission’s findings. This respectability effect has been enhanced by Life magazine’s 25 November 1966 issue, which contains an assertion that there is a “reasonable doubt,” as well as a republication of frames from the Zapruder film (owned by Life), and an interview with Governor Connally, who repeats his belief that he was not struck by the same bullet that struck President Kennedy. (Connally does not, however, agree that there should be another investigation.) Epstein himself has published a new article in the December 1966 issue of Esquire, in which he explains away objections to his book. A copy of an early critique of Epstein’s views by Fletcher Knebel, published in Look, 12 July 1966, and an unclassified, unofficial analysis (by “Spectator”) are attached to this dispatch, dealing with specific questions raised by Epstein.

7. Here it should be pointed out that Epstein’s competence in research has been greatly exaggerated. Some illustrations are given in the Fletcher Knebel article. As a further specimen, Epstein’s book refers (pp. 93-5) to a cropped-down picture of a heavy-set man taken in Mexico City, saying that the Central Intelligence Agency gave it to the Federal Bureau of Investigation on 18 November 1963, and that the Bureau in turn forwarded it to its Dallas office. Actually, affidavits in the published Warren material (vol. XI, pp. 468-70) show that CIA turned the picture over to the FBI on 22 November 1963. (As a matter of interest, Mark Lane’s Rush to Judgment claims that the photo was furnished by CIA on the morning of 22 November; the fact is that the FBI flew the photo directly from Mexico City to Dallas immediately after Oswald’s arrest, before Oswald’s picture had been published, on the chance it might be Oswald. The reason the photo was cropped was that the background revealed the place where it was taken.) Another example: where Epstein reports (p. 41) that a Secret Service interview report was even withheld from the National Archives, this is untrue: an Archives staff member told one of our officers that Epstein came there and asked for the memorandum. He was told that it was there, but was classified. Indeed, the Archives then notified the Secret Service that there had been a request for the document, and the Secret Service declassified it. But by that time, Epstein (whose preface gives the impression of prolonged archival research) had chosen to finish his searches in the Archives, which had only lasted two days, and had left town. Yet Epstein charges that the Commission was over-hasty in its work.

The New York Times daily book reviewer has said that Epstein’s work is a “watershed book” which has made it respectable to doubt the Commission’s findings. This respectability effect has been enhanced by Life magazines 25 November 1966 issue, which contains an assertion that there is a “reasonable doubt,” as well as a republication of frames from the Zapruder film (owned by Life), and an interview with Governor Connally, who repeats his belief that he was not struck by the same bullet that struck President Kennedy.

8. Aside from such failures in research, Epstein and other intellectual critics show symptoms of some of the love of theorizing and lack of common sense and experience displayed by Richard H. Popkin, the author of The Second Oswald. Because Oswald was reported to have been seen in different places at the same time, a phenomenon not surprising in a sensational case where thousands of real or alleged witnesses were interviewed, Popkin, a professor of philosophy, theorizes that there actually were two Oswalds. At this point, theorizing becomes sort of logico-mathematical game; an exercise in permutations and combinations; as Commission attorney Arlen Specter remarked, “Why not make it three Oswalds? Why stop at two?” Nevertheless, aside from his book, Popkin has been able to publish a summary of his views in The New York Review of Books, and there has been replay in the French Nouvel Observateur, in Moscow’s New Times, and in Baku’s Vyshka. Popkin makes a sensational accusation indirectly, saying that “Western European critics” see Kennedy’s assassination as part of a subtle conspiracy attributable to “perhaps even (in rumors I have heard) Kennedy’s successor.” One Barbara Garson has made the same point in another way by her parody of Shakespeare’s “Macbeth” entitled “MacBird,” with what was obviously President Kennedy (Ken O Dune) in the role of Duncan, and President Johnson (MacBird) in the role of Macbeth. Miss Garson makes no effort to prove her point; she merely insinuates it. Probably the indirect form of accusation is due to fear of a libel suit.

9. Other books are yet to appear. William Manchester’s not-yet-published The Death of a President is at this writing being purged of material personally objectionable to Mrs. Kennedy. There are hopeful signs: Jacob Cohen is writing a book which will appear in 1967 under the title Honest Verdict, defending the Commission report, and one of the Commission attorneys, Wesley J. Liebeler, is also reportedly writing a book, setting forth both sides. But further criticism will no doubt appear; as the Washington Post has pointed out editorially, the recent death of Jack Ruby will probably lead to speculation that he was “silenced” by a conspiracy.

10. The likelihood of further criticism is enhanced by the circumstance that Communist propagandists seem recently to have stepped up their own campaign to discredit the Warren Commission. As already noted, Moscow’s New Times reprinted parts of an article by Richard Popkin (21 and 28 September 1966 issues), and it also gave the Swiss edition of Joesten’s latest work an extended, laudatory review in its number for 26 October. Izvestiya has also publicized Joesten’s book in articles of 18 and 21 October. (In view of this publicity and the Communist background of Joesten and his American publisher, together with Joesten’s insistence on pinning the blame on such favorite Communist targets as H.L. Hunt, the FBI and CIA, there seems reason to suspect that Joesten’s book and its exploitation are part of a planned Soviet propaganda operation.) Tass, reporting on 5 November on the deposit of autopsy photographs in the National Archives, said that the refusal to give wide public access to them, the disappearance of a number of documents, and the mysterious death of more than 10 people, all make many Americans believe Kennedy was killed as the result of a conspiracy. The radio transmitters of Prague and Warsaw used the anniversary of the assassination to attack the Warren report. The Bulgarian press conducted a campaign on the subject in the second half of October; a Greek Communist newspaper, Avgi, placed the blame on CIA on 20 November. Significantly, the start of this stepped-up campaign coincided with a Soviet demand that the U.S. Embassy in Moscow stop distributing the Russian-language edition of the Warren report; Newsweek commented (12 September) that the Soviets apparently “did not want mere facts to get in their way.”

Attachment 2

The Theories of Mr. Epstein by Spectator

A recent critic of the Warren Commission Report, Edward Jay Epstein, has attracted widespread attention by contesting the Report’s conclusion that, “although it is not necessary to any essential findings of the Commission,” President Kennedy and Governor Connally were probably hit successively by the same bullet, the second of three shots fired. In his book, Inquest, Epstein maintains (1) that if the two men were not hit by the same bullet, there must have been two assassins, and (2) that there is evidence which strongly suggests that the two men were not hit by the same bullet. He suggests that the Commission’s conclusions must be viewed as “expressions of political truth,” implying that they are not in fact true, but are only a sort of Pablum for the public, Epstein’s argument that the two men must either have been shot by one bullet or by two assassins rests on a comparison of the minimum time required to operate the bolt on Lee Harvey Oswald’s rifle Q 2.3 seconds Q with the timing of the shots as deduced from a movie of the shooting taken by an amateur photographer, Abraham Zapruder. The frames of the movie serve to time the events in the shooting. The film (along with a slow-motion re-enactment of the shooting made on 24 May 1964 on the basis of the film and other pictures and evidence) tends to show that the President was probably not shot before frame 207, when he came out from beneath the cover of an oak tree, and that the Governor was hit not later than frame 240. If this is correct, then the two men would not have been hit longer than 1.8 seconds apart, since Zapruder’s film was taken at a speed of 18.3 frames per second. Since Oswald’s rifle could not have fired a second shot within 1.8 seconds, Epstein concludes that the victims must have been shot by separate weapons Q and hence presumably by separate assassins Q unless they were hit by the same bullet. Epstein then argues that there is evidence which contradicts the possibility of a shooting by a single bullet. In his book he refers to Federal Bureau of Investigation reports stemming from FBI men present at the Bethesda autopsy on President Kennedy, according to which there was a wound in the back with no point of exit; this means that the bullet which entered Kennedy’s back could not later have hit Connally. This information, Epstein notes, flatly contradicts the official autopsy report accepted by the Commission, according to which the bullet presumably entered Kennedy’s body just below the neck and exited through the throat. Epstein also publishes photographs of the backs of Kennedy’s shirt and coat, showing bullet holes about six inches below the top of the collar, as well as a rough sketch made at the time of the autopsy; these pictures suggest that the entrance wound in the back was too low to be linked to an exit wound in the throat. In his book, Epstein says that if the FBI statements are correct Q and he indicates his belief that they are Q then the “autopsy findings must have been changed after January 13 [January 13, 1964: the date of the last FBI report stating that the bullet penetrated Kennedy’s back for less than a finger-length .] .” In short, he implies that the Commission warped and even forged evidence so as to conceal the fact of a conspiracy. Following the appearance of Epstein’s Inquest, it was pointed out that on the morning (November 23rd) after the Bethesda autopsy attended by FBI and Secret Service men, the autopsy doctors learned that a neck wound, obliterated by an emergency tracheostomy performed in Dallas, had been seen by the Dallas doctors. (The tracheostomy had been part of the effort to save Kennedy’s life.) The FBI men who had only attended the autopsy on the evening of November 22 naturally did not know about this information from Dallas, which led the autopsy doctors to change their conclusions, finally signed by them on November 24. Also, the Treasury Department (which runs the Secret Service) reported that the autopsy report was only forwarded by the Secret Service to the FBI on December 23, 1963. But in a recent article in Esquire, Epstein notes that the final FBI report was still issued after the Secret Service had sent the FBI the official autopsy, and he claims that the explanation that the FBI was uninformed “begs the question of how a wound below the shoulder became a wound in the back of the neck.” He presses for making the autopsy pictures available, a step which the late President’s brother has so far steadfastly resisted on the grounds of taste, though they have been made available to qualified official investigators. Let us consider Epstein’s arguments in the light of information now available:

1. Epstein’s thesis that if the President and the Governor were not hit by the same bullet, there must have been two assassins:

a. Feeling in the Commission was that the two men were probably hit by the same bullet; however, some members evidently felt that the evidence was not conclusive enough to exclude completely the Governor’s belief that he and the President were hit separately. After all, Connally was one of the most important living witnesses. While not likely, it was possible that President Kennedy could have been hit more than 2.3 seconds before Connally. As Arlen Specter, a Commission attorney and a principal adherent of the “one-bullet theory,” says, the Zapruder film is two-dimensional and one cannot say exactly when Connally, let alone the President, was hit. The film does not show the President during a crucial period (from about frames 204 to 225) when a sign blocked the view from Zapruder’s camera, and before that the figures are distant and rather indistinct. (When Life magazine first published frames from the Zapruder film in its special 1963 Assassination Issue, it believed that the pictures showed Kennedy first hit 74 frames before Governor Connally was struck.) The “earliest possible time” used by Epstein is based on the belief that, for an interval before that time, the view of the car from the Book Depository window was probably blocked by the foliage of an oak tree (from frame 166 to frame 207, with a brief glimpse through the leaves at frame 186). In the words of the Commission’s Report, “it is unlikely that the assassin would deliberately have shot [at President Kennedy] with a view obstructed by the oak tree when he was about to have a clear opportunity”; unlikely, but not impossible. Since Epstein is fond of logical terminology, it might be pointed out that he made an illicit transition from probability to certainty in at least one of his premises.

b. Although Governor Connally believed that he and the President were hit separately, he did not testify that he saw the President hit before he was hit himself; he testified that he heard a first shot and started to turn to see what had happened. His testimony (as the Commission’s report says) can therefore be reconciled with the supposition that the first shot missed and the second shot hit both men. However, the Commission did not pretend that the two men could not possibly have been hit separately.

c. The Commission also concluded that all the shots were fired from the sixth floor window of the Depository. The location of the wounds is one major basis for this conclusion. In the room behind the Depository window, Oswald’s rifle and three cartridge cases were found, and all of the cartridge cases were identified by experts as having been fired by that rifle; no other weapon or cartridge cases were found, and the consensus of the witnesses from the plaza was that there were three shots. If there were other assassins, what happened to their weapons and cartridge cases? How did they escape? Epstein points out that one woman, a Mrs. Walther, not an expert on weapons, thought she saw two men, one with a machine gun, in the window, and that one other witness thought he saw someone else on the sixth floor; this does not sound very convincing, especially when compared with photographs and other witnesses who saw nothing of the kind.

d. The very fact that the Commission did not absolutely rule out the possibility that the victims were shot separately shows that its conclusions were not determined by a preconceived theory. Now, Epstein’s thesis is not just his own discovery; he relates that one of the Commission lawyers volunteered to him: “To say that they were hit by separate bullets is synonymous with saying that there were two assassins.” This thesis was evidently considered by the Commission. If the thesis were completely valid, and if the Commissioners Q as Epstein charges Q had only been interested in finding “political truth,” then the Commission should have flatly adopted the “one-bullet theory,” completely rejecting any possibility that the men were hit separately. But while Epstein and the others have a weakness for theorizing, the seven experienced lawyers on the Commission were not committed beforehand to finding either a conspiracy or the absence of one, and they wisely refused to erect a whole logical structure on the slender foundation of a few debatable pieces of evidence.

2. Epstein’s thesis that either the FBI’s reports (that the bullet entering the President’s back did not exit) were wrong, or the official autopsy report was falsified. a. Epstein prefers to believe that the FBI reports are accurate (otherwise, he says, “doubt is cast on the accuracy of the FBI’s entire investigation”) and that the official autopsy report was falsified. Now, as noted above, it has emerged since Inquest was written that the FBI witnesses to the autopsy did not know about the information of a throat wound, obtained from Dallas, and that the doctors’ autopsy report was not forwarded to the FBI until December 23, 1963. True, this date preceded the date of the FBI’s Supplemental Report, January 13, 1964, and that Supplemental Report did not refer to the doctors’ report, following instead the version of the earlier FBI reports. But on November 25, 1966, FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover explained that when the FBI submitted its January 13 report, it knew that the Commission would weigh its evidence together with that of other agencies, and it was not incumbent on the FBI to argue the merits of its own version as opposed to that of the doctors. When writing reports for outside use, experienced officials are always cautious about criticizing or even discussing the products of other agencies. (If one is skeptical about this explanation, it would still be much easier to believe that the author(s) of the Supplemental Report had somehow overlooked or not received the autopsy report than to suppose that that report was falsified months after the event. Epstein thinks the Commission staff overlooked Mrs. Walther’s report mentioned above, yet he does not consider the possibility that the doctors’ autopsy report did not actually reach the desk of the individuals who prepared the Supplemental Report until after they had written Q perhaps well before January 13 Q the draft of page 2 of that report. Such an occurrence would by no means justify a general distrust of the FBI’s “entire investigation.”) b. With regard to the holes in the shirt and coat, their location can be readily explained by supposing that the President was waving to the crowd, an act which would automatically raise the back of his clothing. And in fact, photographs show the President was waving just before he was shot. c. As to the location of the hole in the President’s back or shoulder, the autopsy films have recently been placed in the National Archives, and were viewed in November 1966 by two of the autopsy directors, who… [The last page released ends here.]

Dispatch To: Chiefs, Certain Stations and Bases From: Chief, Subject:

Warren Commission Report: Article on the Investigation Conducted by District Attorney Garrison

Date: 19 July 1968

1. We are forwarding herewith a reprint of the article “A Reporter At Large: Garrison”, published in THE NEW YORKER, 13 July, 1968. It was written by Edward Jay Epstein, himself author of a book (“Inquest”), critical of the Warren Commission Report.

2. The wide-spread campaign of adverse criticism of the U.S., most recently again provoked by the assassination of Senator Robert Kennedy, appears to have revived foreign interest in the assassination of his brother, the late President Kennedy, too. The forthcoming trial of Sirhan, accused of the murder of Senator Kennedy, can be expected to cause a new wave of criticism and suspicion against the United States, claiming once more the existence of a sinister “political murder conspiracy”. We are sending you the attached article Q based either on first-hand observation by the author or on other, identified sources Q since it deals with the continuing investigation, conducted by District Attorney Garrison of New Orleans, La. That investigation tends to keep alive speculations about the death of President Kennedy, an alleged “conspiracy”, and about the possible involvement of Federal agencies, notably the FBI and CIA.

3. The article is not meant for reprinting in any media. It is forwarded primarily for your information and for the information of all Station personnel concerned. If the Garrison investigation should be cited in your area in the context of renewed anti-U.S. attacks, you may use the article to brief interested contacts, especially government and other political leaders, and to demonstrate to assets (which you may assign to counter such attacks) that there is no hard evidence of any such conspiracy. In this context, assets may have to explain to their audiences certain basic facts about the U.S. judicial system, its separation of state and federal courts and the fact that judges and district attorneys in the states are usually elected, not appointed: consequently, D.A. Garrison can continue in office as long as his constituents re-elect him. Even if your assets have to discuss this in order to refute Q or at least weaken Q anti-U.S. propaganda of sufficiently serious impact, any personal attacks upon Garrison (or any other public personality in the U.S.) must be strictly avoided.


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